Retinochoroiditis is the most frequent manifestation of congenital toxoplasmosis. We aimed to describe the ocular outcome and factors that may influence the visual prognosis of these patients.
Cohort of patients with confirmed congenital toxoplasmosis seen between 1996 and 2017 in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil.
Seventy-seven patients were included, of which 65 (85.5%) were identified by routine screening. Median age at the end of the follow-up was 10 years (minimum 2, maximum 25). Retinochoroiditis was present in 55 patients (71.4%). New retinochoroidal lesions developed after the first year of life in 77.8% of the patients who began treatment after the fourth month of life, compared with 35.2% among those treated before 4 months of life (relative risk = 0.45, 95% confidence intervals: 0.27–0.75, P = 0.02) and 33.3% among those treated before 2 months of life (relative risk = 0.42, 95% confidence intervals: 0.25–0.72, P = 0.01). There was a peak incidence of new retinochoroidal lesions between 4 and 5 years and another peak between 9 and 14 years, the latter only among girls. Thirty-four patients with retinochoroiditis were followed up for 10 years or more, and the school performance was appropriate in 28 (82.4%).
The high incidence of new retinochoroidal lesions during the follow-up period indicates the importance of long-term follow-up of patients with congenital toxoplasmosis. Initiating treatment within the first 4 months of life, especially within the first 2 months, was a protective factor against the later development of retinochoroiditis. Despite the usual favorable prognosis, the high morbidity of congenital toxoplasmosis in Brazil was confirmed.