Early bacterial infection is a major and severe complication after liver transplantation (LT). The rise of antimicrobial resistance, especially extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE), is a growing concern for these patients. This study aimed to assess the epidemiology of early bacterial infections in a pediatric population, including those caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens, and to identify risk factors for infection.
We conducted a monocentric retrospective study including 142 consecutive LTs performed in 137 children between 2009 and 2017.
Ninety-three bacterial infections occurred after 67 (47%) LTs. Among the 82 isolated pathogens, the most common was Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 19, 23%). Independent risk factors for early bacterial infection were low weight [odds ratio (OR) = 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.9–0.99; P = 0.03] and the presence of a prosthetic mesh (OR = 2.4; 95% CI: 1.1–5.4; P = 0.046). Sixty-one children (45%) carried MDR bacteria and 16 infections were caused by MDR pathogens, especially ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae (n = 12). ESBL-PE stool carriage was associated with ESBL-PE infection (OR = 4.5; 95% CI: 1.4–17.4; P = 0.02). Four children died from an infection, three due to ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae.
This study confirmed a shift toward a predominance of Gram-negative early bacterial infections after pediatric LT. The risk factors for infection were low weight and the presence of a prosthetic mesh. ESBL-PE stool carriage was associated with ESBL-PE infection. Adapted antimicrobial prophylaxis and personalized antibiotherapy are mandatory to reduce infection prevalence and mortality.