Immunology and Host ResponseThe Treatment of Acute Rheumatic Fever Novel Use of HydroxychloroquineWilson, Nigel J. FRACP*; Concannon, Anthony FRACP†,‡; Malcolm, John FRACP§; Davidakova, Sarka FRACP¶; Martin, William John PhD‖; Webb, Rachel FRACP‡,**,††; Moreland, Nicole J. PhD‡‡Author Information From the *Green Lane Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Services, Starship Children’s Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand †Rheumatology Department, Starship Children’s Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand ‡Paediatric Department, Kidz First Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand §Department of Paediatrics, Whakatane Hospital, Whakatane, New Zealand ¶Department of Paediatrics, Rotorua Hospital, Rotorua, New Zealand ‖Callaghan Innovation, Wellington, New Zealand **Paediatric Infectious diseases Department, Starship Children’s Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand ††Paediatric Department, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand ‡‡School of Medical Sciences and Maurice Wilkins Centre, The University of Auckland, Auckland New Zealand Accepted for publication February 20, 2020. The authors have no funding or conflicts of interest to disclose. Address for correspondence: Nigel Wilson, FRACP, Green Lane Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Services, Starship Children’s Hospital, Private Bag 92024, Auckland 1142. New Zealand. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal: July 2020 - Volume 39 - Issue 7 - p e120-e122 doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000002647 Buy Metrics Abstract Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) suppresses an interleukin-1β-granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor cytokine axis, reported to be dysregulated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of acute rheumatic fever patients ex vivo. We describe HCQ treatment for 2 patients with rheumatic carditis and a protracted inflammatory course. HCQ was associated with control of inflammatory markers, control of pericarditis in first patient and stabilization of progressive carditis in the second patient. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.