Original StudiesAichivirus With Acute Gastroenteritis in IranTaghinejad, Mohammad MSc*; Ghaderi, Mostafa PhD*; Mousavi-Nasab, Seyed Dawood PhD†Author Information From the *Department of Microbiology, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran †Department of Research and Development, Production and Research Complex, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran. Accepted for publication February 1, 2020. The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose. All procedures performed in this study involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. M.T. performed this project as part of her MSc, M.G. designed and managed the project, and all the other authors were involved in the experiment, technical support and writing of the manuscript. Address for Correspondence: Mostafa Ghaderi, PhD, Department of Microbiology, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal: July 2020 - Volume 39 - Issue 7 - p 576-579 doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000002638 Buy Metrics Abstract Background: Initially, detection and isolation of Aichivirus as a new member of Picornaviridae family was documented in Japan. Aichivirus species belongs to genus Kobuvirus, including 3 genotypes A, B and C. In previous studies, it has been suggested that Aichivirus infect humans by fecal-oral route. To establish an investigation for the occurrence of Aichivirus among pediatric patients involved to acute gastroenteritis, we developed a reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay for detection and quantification of Aichivirus in stool specimens. Material and Methods: In this study, a total of 160 stool samples from September 2018 to May 2019 were collected from pediatric patients presenting with acute gastroenteritis in Karaj hospital, Iran. After viral RNA extraction, the reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to amplify the 3CD junction region of Aichivirus genome and viral load was assessed. Aichivirus genomic RNA was detected in 13/160 (8.1%) of stool samples. The highest Aichivirus detection rate was in December (30.7%). The maximum viral load was determined to be 3.9 × 108 copies/g in one sample obtained from a 1-month-old patient. The co-infection of Aichivirus with salivirus and saffold virus was also assessed by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction, among which frequent mixed infections by 2 or more viruses were identified. Conclusions: This is the first documentation of Aichivirus detection in stool samples that demonstrates Aichivirus has been circulating among Iranian pediatric patients. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.