Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common cause of fever in children. Despite the increasing numbers of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing organisms in the community, the empirical therapy of choice is still third-generation cephalosporins. This study was performed to investigate whether inappropriate empirical therapy (IAT) of community-onset UTI results in adverse clinical outcomes.
We retrospectively studied a cohort of pediatric patients with first-episode community-onset UTI caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Proteus spp. at Ramathibodi Hospital from 2011 to 2017. The patients were classified into IAT and appropriate empirical therapy (AT) groups. Medical records were reviewed to assess clinical outcomes.
One hundred fifty-one eligible patients were enrolled in this study. The most common causative organism was E. coli (88.8% and 96.2% in the AT and IAT groups, respectively). Among the causative organisms, 19.8% were extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing organisms. There was no significant difference in clinical failure, microbiologic failure, relapse or time to defervescence between the 2 groups. No patients in either group developed sepsis after receiving empirical therapy. However, the length of hospital stay was significantly longer in the IAT than AT group [4.00 (4.50–6.00) vs. 7.00 (5.00–11.25) days, respectively; P = 0.000].
No significant difference in treatment outcomes was found between pediatric patients receiving AT and IAT for the treatment of UTI. In the era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, third-generation cephalosporins may still be a good choice as an empirical antimicrobial for children diagnosed with community-onset UTI.