Globally, tuberculosis (TB) remains a serious cause of morbidity and mortality for children. Mozambique is 1 of 30 high TB and TB/HIV burden countries. This study aimed to assess treatment outcomes of childhood TB in Chókwè District, Mozambique.
A retrospective cohort study of children <15-years-old treated for TB from 2006 to 2017 was conducted at Carmelo Hospital of Chókwè. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize patient characteristics. Treatment outcomes stratified by HIV status were compared with χ2. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of a favorable TB treatment outcome. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to estimate the cumulative incidence of death.
Nine hundred thirty-three cases of childhood TB were enrolled, 45.9% of which were female and 49.6% were <5-years-old. Five hundred sixty-five (62%) children were HIV positive. Seven hundred sixty-two (83.6%) cases had a favorable TB treatment outcome. In comparison to children 0–4 years, the 5–14 age group had a higher odds of a favorable outcome [odds ratio: 2.02, 95% confidence interval: 1.42–3.05]. Being 5–14 years was associated with lower risk of death (hazard ratio: 0.435; 95% confidence interval: 0.299–0.632). Those starting anti-TB treatment ≤3 months after antiretroviral therapy initiation had a survival probability of approximately 75% at 1 year compared with 95% for those who were HIV negative.
Most children in this cohort had favorable TB treatment outcomes. Worse outcomes were observed for younger children and if anti-TB treatment started ≤3 months after initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Rigorous screening for TB and isoniazid preventative therapy may reduce the burden of TB in this population and lead to better outcomes.