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Anti-NMDA-receptor Encephalitis in an Adolescent With HIV Infection and Review of the Literature

Pinzon-Charry, Alberto MD, PhD, FRACP*,†,‡; Wallace, Geoff MBBS, FRACP§,¶; Clark, Julia E. MBBS, FRACP*,¶; Nourse, Clare BA, MB BCh, BAO, DCH, MRCPI, FRACP, MD*,¶

The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal: August 2019 - Volume 38 - Issue 8 - p e169–e171
doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000002338
Immunology and Host Response
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Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate-receptor encephalitis is the most common antibody-mediated autoimmune encephalopathy. A HIV-infected African boy presented with subacute psychosis as manifestation of anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate-receptor encephalitis. Intravenous immunoglobulin and corticosteroids induced complete remission. Although this is the first pediatric case described, 5 adult cases have been reported. The role of HIV in the etiology of this autoimmune condition requires further exploration.

From the *Infectious Diseases, Immunology, Allergy and Rheumatology, Queensland Children’s Hospital, South Brisbane

Greenslopes Private Hospital, Brisbane, Australia

Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia

§§Department of Neurology, Queensland Children’s Hospital, Brisbane, Australia

University of Queensland, Queensland, Brisbane, Australia

Accepted for publication February 5, 2019.

The authors have no funding or conflicts of interest to disclose.

Address for correspondence: Alberto Pinzon-Charry, MD, PhD, FRACP, Infectious Diseases, Immunology, Allergy and Rheumatology, Level 12, Queensland Children’s Hospital, 501 Stanley Street, South Brisbane, QLD 4101, Australia. E-mail: alberto.pinzon@health.qld.gov.au or apinzoncharry@gmail.com.

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