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Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis After Human Parechovirus Infection

Obermeier, Patrick E. Cand.Med.*; Karsch, Katharina MD*; Hoppe, Christian BSc*†; Seeber, Lea Cand.Med.*; Schneider, Joanna MD*; Mühlhans, Susann MD*; Chen, Xi Cand.Med.*; Tief, Franziska MD*; Kaindl, Angela M. MD*‡§; Weschke, Bernhard MD*; Böttcher, Sindy PhD; Diedrich, Sabine MD; Rath, Barbara MD, PhD*

The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal: January 2016 - Volume 35 - Issue 1 - p 35–38
doi: 10.1097/INF.0000000000000928
Original Studies
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Background: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an inflammatory, demyelinating disease occurring several weeks after viral infection. Enteroviruses have been described as potential triggers of ADEM, but the closely related parechoviruses have not. The objective of the study is to assess the prevalence and disease presentation of ADEM after parechovirus infection in a syndromic surveillance program for pediatric infection/inflammation of the central nervous system (CNS).

Methods: The surveillance was conducted at the Charité Department of Pediatrics in Berlin, Germany, from November 2010 to November 2014. All hospitalized children meeting predefined case criteria underwent highly standardized prospective clinical assessments based on the published case definitions, including for ADEM. Stool samples were independently analyzed by enterovirus and parechovirus real-time polymerase chain reaction at the Robert Koch Institute.

Results: Of 105,557 patients screened, 774 (0.7%) fulfilled entry criteria for CNS infection/inflammation, with 114 cases ascertained as ADEM. Parechoviruses were detected in 2.5% of patients with CNS infection/inflammation, including 1 case fulfilling ADEM case criteria with the highest level of diagnostic certainty.

Conclusions: We report a first case of ADEM after parechovirus infection in a 5-year-old female presenting with acute hemiparesis 2 weeks after a respiratory illness. Parechovirus disease should be included in the differential diagnosis of ADEM.

From the *Department of Pediatrics, Charité University Medical Center; Medical Bioinformatics Group, Free University; Institute for Cell and Neurobiology, Charité University Medical Center; §Center for Social Pediatrics (SPZ), Charité University Medical Center; and National Reference Center for Poliomyelitis and Enteroviruses, Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany.

Accepted for publication August 4, 2015.

This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors. A.M.K. is a member of Collaborative Research Groups funded by the German Research Foundation (SFB665) and the Berlin Institute of Health (BIH). BR is principle investigator in the European IMI Joint Undertaking (IMI-JU) funded project “Biomarkers For Enhanced Vaccine Safety” (BioVacSafe). The authors have no funding or conflicts of interest to disclose.

Address for correspondence: Barbara Rath, MD, PhD, Department of Pediatrics, Charité University Medical Center Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, D-13353 Berlin, Germany. E-mail: barbara.rath@gmail.com.

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