Background: Streptococcus pneumoniae
remains an important cause of bacterial meningitis in children
younger than 2 years. Here, we analyzed data from an active surveillance network established 12 years ago by the Pediatric Infectious Disease Group and the Pediatric Clinical and Therapeutical Association to analyze the impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7 implemented in 2002 and PCV13 in 2010) on pneumococcal meningitis
Two hundred twenty-seven pediatric wards working with 168 microbiology departments throughout France were asked to report all cases of PM.
From 2001 to 2012, among 4808 bacterial meningitis cases, 1406 cases of PM (29.2%) were reported. After PCV13 implementation, from 2009 to 2012, the number of cases significantly decreased by 27.4% (P
= 0.041, Cuzick trend test). For children
younger than 2 years, the decrease was 28.2% (P
= 0.039, Cuzick trend test). In the same period, the decrease was 66.7% in cases due to 6 additional PCV13 types, and the number of cases due to nonvaccine types remained stable. In 2012, the non-PCV13 serotype represented 67.6% of cases and were mainly represented by 12F (15%), 24F (15%), 22F (7%) and 15B/C (7%). For 88.6% of cases, initial antibiotic treatment was vancomycin with a third-generation cephalosporin. Overall mortality was 10.6%, most deaths (86.4%) occurred before day 15.
Two years after the PCV13 implementation, we found an impact on PM cases particularly for children
younger than 2 years.