A survey of nasopharyngeal carriage of penicillin nonsusceptible pneumococcal (PNSp) isolates was conducted among 1192 children attending 62 day care centers in Brazil, where pneumococcal vaccination has not been routinely introduced. Nasopharyngeal pneumococcal carriage was detected in 686 (57.6%) infants, and 178 (25.9%) of them carried PNSp isolates. Being less than 24 months of age, hospitalization in the previous 3 months, and recurrent acute otitis media were independently associated with PNSp. Serotypes 14, 23F, 19A, 6A, 6B and 19F were the most common serotype isolated accounting for 80% of the PNSp. A high proportion (35/332) of non-(sero)typeable isolates was detected, 62.9% of them PNSp. Serotypes coverage projected for the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) 13-valent vaccine (72%) was significantly higher compared with PCV7 (58.4%) and PCV 10-valent vaccine (59.3%).
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From the *Secretariat of Health, Municipality of Goiania, Goiás State, Brazil; Departments of †Community Health and ‡Tropical Diseases and Dermatology, Institute of Tropical Pathology and Public Health, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia-GO, Brazil; §Respiratory Diseases Branch, Division of Bacterial Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA; ¶Department of Microbiology, Institute of Tropical Pathology and Public Health, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia-GO, Brazil; ∥Bacteriology Branch, Adolfo Lutz Institute, São Paulo, Brazil; Departments of **Pathology and ††Microbiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL.
Supported by the Brazilian Council for Research and Development/CNPq (473187/2004-3, 482646/2007-1), the Secretariat of Health of Goiânia Municipality, and a grant from the US NIH (AI-31473) to MHN. AL Andrade (309196/2007-8), MC Brandileone (301340/2007-2), and FC Pimenta (473880/2006-7) are fellowships from the CNPq.
Accepted for publication May 22, 2009.
Address for correspondence: Ana Lucia S. Andrade, Departamento de Saúde Coletiva, Instituto de Patologia Tropical e Saúde Pública, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Rua 235, S. Leste Universitário, CEP 74605-050, Goiânia-GO, Brazil. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
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