Institutional members access full text with Ovid®

Share this article on:

Respiratory Pathogens in Respiratory Tract Illnesses During the First Year of Life: A Birth Cohort Study

van der Zalm, Marieke M. MD*; Uiterwaal, Cuno S.P.M. MD, PhD; Wilbrink, Berry PhD; de Jong, Brita M. MD*; Verheij, Theo J.M. MD, PhD; Kimpen, Jan L.L. MD, PhD§; van der Ent, Cornelis K. MD, PhD*

The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal: June 2009 - Volume 28 - Issue 6 - p 472-476
doi: 10.1097/INF.0b013e318195e26e
Original Studies

Background: Respiratory virus infections are the most important trigger of respiratory illnesses in childhood. Data on the occurrence and the clinical impact of respiratory pathogens in the general population of infants are scarce. Therefore, we described the occurrence and clinical impact of respiratory pathogens in infants with respiratory tract infections during the first year of life.

Methods: In a prospective birth cohort study, infants were followed from birth through the first year of life with daily questionnaires about respiratory symptoms. Nose and throat swabs were collected during episodes with respiratory symptoms. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect an extensive panel of respiratory pathogens.

Results: The parents reported a median of 5 respiratory episodes per infant per year. A total of 668 respiratory samples were collected in 305 infants. One or more respiratory pathogens were detected in 85% of the samples. The most common respiratory pathogens were human rhinovirus (HRV) (73% of the samples), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (11%), and coronavirus (8%). HRV infections were associated with a prolonged period of symptoms compared with RSV (P = 0.03). Infections with RSV were associated with more physician visits than HRV infections (P = 0.06).

Conclusion: We found a high prevalence of respiratory pathogens among infants with parent-reported respiratory illnesses in the first year of life, with HRV being the most prevalent. Although RSV infections seemed to be responsible for the most severe symptoms compared with HRV, the overall burden of disease was highest for HRV infections.


From the *Pediatric Pulmonology, Wilhelmina Children’s Hospital, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands; †Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands; ‡Laboratory of Infectious Diseases and Perinatal Screening, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands; and §Pediatrics Infectious Diseases, Wilhelmina Children’s Hospital, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Accepted for publication November 19, 2008.

Supported by a MD/PhD grant from the University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands (to M.M.V.Z.).

Address for correspondence: Marieke M. van der Zalm, MD, Pediatric Pulmonology, Wilhelmina Children’s Hospital, University Medical Centre Utrecht, PO Box 85090 Office KH 01.419.0, 3508 AB Utrecht, Netherlands. E-mail:

Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal’s Web site (

© 2009 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.