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Outcomes for Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1-Infected Infants in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland in the Era of Effective Antiretroviral Therapy

Doerholt, Katja MSc*; Duong, Trinh MSc; Tookey, Pat PhD; Butler, Karina MBBCh§; Lyall, Hermione MD; Sharland, Mike MD; Novelli, Vas MBCHB#; Riordan, Andrew MD**; Dunn, David PhD; Walker, A Sarah PhD; Gibb, Diana M. MDthe Collaborative HIV Paediatric Study (CHIPS)

The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal: May 2006 - Volume 25 - Issue 5 - p 420-426
doi: 10.1097/01.inf.0000214994.44346.d3
Original Studies

Background: There are few data about disease progression and response to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in vertically HIV-infected infants in the era of effective therapy.

Design: Cohort study.

Methods: We examined progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and death over calendar time for infants reported to the National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood in the United Kingdom/Ireland. The use of ART and CD4 and HIV-1 RNA responses were assessed in a subset in the Collaborative HIV Pediatric Study.

Results: Among 481 infants, mortality was lower in those born after 1997 (HR 0.30; P < 0.001), with no significant change in progression to AIDS. Of 174 infants born since 1997 in the Collaborative HIV Pediatric Study, 41 (24%) were followed from birth, 77 (44%) presented pre-AIDS and 56 (32%) presented with AIDS. Of 125 (72%) children on 3- or 4-drug ART by the age of 2 years, 59% had HIV-1 RNA <400 at 12 months; median CD4 percentage increased from 24% to 35%. Among 41 infants followed from birth, 12 progressed to AIDS (5 while ART naive) and 3 died; 1 of 10 infants initiating ART before 3 months of age progressed clinically.

Conclusion: Mortality in HIV-infected infants is significantly lower in the era of effective ART, but symptomatic disease rates remain high. Infrequent clinic attendance and poor compliance with cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and/or ART in infants born to diagnosed HIV-infected women and late presentation of infants identified after birth appear to be major contributors. Poor virologic response to ART during infancy is of concern because of increased likelihood of early development of resistance.

From the *St. Peter's Hospital, Chertsey; †MRC Clinical Trials Unit and ‡Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom; §Our Lady's Hospital for Sick Children, Dublin, Ireland; ∥St. Mary's Hospital, ¶St. George's Hospital, #Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, United Kingdom; **Royal Liverpool Children's Hospital, Liverpool, United Kingdom.

Accepted for publication November 21, 2005.

Supported by the Collaborative HIV Paediatric Study, collaboration between the Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit, United Kingdom, and the National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood at the Institute of Child Health, London. NSHPC receives support from the UK Department of Health and the Medical Research Council; CHIPS is funded by the Department of Health and in the past received additional support from Bristol-Myers Squibb, Boehringer Ingelheim, GlaxoSmithKline, Roche, Abbott, and Gilead.

Address for correspondence: Prof. D.M. Gibb, MRC Clinical Trials Unit, 222 Euston Road, London NW1 2DA, United Kingdom; Fax +44 (0) 207 670 4815; E-mail

© 2006 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.