Interferon-γ and Colony-Stimulating Factors as Adjuvant Therapy for Refractory Fungal Infections in ChildrenAbzug, Mark J. MD*; Walsh, Thomas J. MD†The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal: August 2004 - Volume 23 - Issue 8 - p 769-773 doi: 10.1097/01.inf.0000134314.65398.bf Instructive Cases Abstract Author Information A human immunodeficiency virus-infected boy with Scedosporium apiospermum otomastoiditis and a girl with diabetes mellitus and Mucor sinusitis and orbital cellulitis had life-threatening disease progression despite antifungal treatment. Interferon-γ and granulocyte-macrophage or granulocyte colony-stimulating factor were added, with good functional outcome in both children. Adjunctive therapy with interferon-γ, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor can be considered for refractory invasive fungal infections. From the *University of Colorado School of Medicine and The Children’s Hospital (Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics), Denver, CO; and †National Cancer Institute (Immunocompromised Host Section, Pediatric Oncology Branch), Bethesda, MD Accepted for publication April 21, 2004. Address for reprints: Mark J. Abzug, MD, Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Box B055, The Children’s Hospital, 1056 East 19th Avenue, Denver, CO 80218. Fax 303-837-2707; E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org. © 2004 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.