Streptococcus pneumoniae empyema necessitatisFreeman, Alexandra F. M.D.; Ben-Ami, Tamar M.D.; Shulman, Stanford T. M.D.The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal: February 2004 - Volume 23 - Issue 2 - p 177-179 doi: 10.1097/01.inf.0000110625.41967.cc Brief Reports Abstract Author Information Empyema necessitatis is a rare complication of empyema characterized by extension of suppuration from the pleural space through the chest wall. The most common etiologies are tuberculosis and actinomycosis. We describe a 1-year-old boy with Streptococcus pneumoniae empyema necessitatis and review previously reported cases. Departments of Pediatrics (AFF, STS) and Medical Imaging (TBA) The Feinberg School of Medicine Northwestern University Children’s Memorial Hospital Chicago, IL Accepted for publication Nov. 7, 2003. Reprints not available. © 2004 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.