The objectives of this study were to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of a new combination vaccine (DTaP-HB-IPV) containing diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis and hepatitis B (HB) and a new inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK). This vaccine was given in an all IPV or sequential IPV and oral polio vaccine (OPV) schedule. Another combination vaccine, DTaP-HB (GSK), was similarly evaluated given with OPV or IPV.
Four hundred infants were randomized into one of four study groups and immunized at 2, 4 and 6 months of age. Group A received three doses of DTaP-HB-IPV; Group B received DTaP-HB-IPV at 2 and 4 months and DTaP-HB with OPV (Orimune) at 6 months; Group C received three doses of DTaP-HB with licensed IPV (IPOL) administered separately; Group D received separate doses of OPV, DTaP (Infanrix; GSK) and HB (Engerix; GSK). All subjects received conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine (Hib) (OmniHIB) at 2, 4 and 6 months of age given at a separate injection site. Subjects who returned at 12 to 18 months of age (229) received booster immunization with DTaP and Hib. Safety was evaluated after each vaccine dose. Blood was drawn before the first dose and one month after the third dose as well as before and after the booster dose.
There were no vaccine-related serious adverse events in any group after any vaccine dose. Minor systemic and local adverse events were also not significantly different among the four groups after any dose. There were no differences in the immune response rates for Hib, HB, polio (types 1, 2 and 3), diphtheria, tetanus or pertussis antigens (pertussis toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin, pertactin) among groups, although there were some quantitative differences in specific antibody titers among groups. DTaP-HB-IPV and DTaP-HB combination vaccines had safety and immunogenicity equivalent to those of standard individually administered vaccines. The new IPV was not inferior to IPOL.
Use of the pentavalent combination vaccine would greatly reduce the number of required injections during the first 2 years of life, thereby simplifying the immunization schedule, enhancing compliance and facilitating acceptance of additional injections engendered by introduction of newer vaccines.