HIV-infected children are at increased risk of developing invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae disease.
To determine the impact of the HIV epidemic on the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in hospitalized African children.
Children <12 years of age with invasive pneumococcal disease were enrolled between March, 1997, and February, 1999.
The seroprevalence of HIV was 64.9% (146 of 225). In children with pneumococcal isolates from serogroups 6, 9, 14, 19 or 23 (pediatric serogroups), pneumonia and pneumonia with concurrent meningitis was more common in HIV-infected children (P = 0.03 and P = 0.003, respectively), whereas septic shock occurred more often in HIV-uninfected children (P = 0.0003). The overall burden of severe invasive pneumococcal disease was 41.7 (95% confidence interval, 26.5 to 65.6) fold increased in HIV-infected compared with HIV-uninfected children. Reduced susceptibility to penicillin (45.9%vs. 27.9%, P = 0.009), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (44.5%vs. 19.0%, P = 0.0002) and multiple drug resistance was more common in HIV-infected than in HIV-uninfected children (24.0%vs. 6.4%, P = 0.01), respectively. The increased burden of disease and reduced antibiotic susceptibility of pneumococcal isolates in HIV-infected children was because of a heightened susceptibility to disease caused by pediatric serogroups in these children than in HIV-uninfected children (P = 0.01). Although the case fatality rates did not differ between HIV-infected and -uninfected children, mortality in HIV-infected children with advanced AIDS (Stage C, 22 of 61; 36.1%) was greater than that in children with moderate AIDS (Stage B, 12 of 85; 14.1%, P = 0.002).
In children with invasive pneumococcal disease caused by the pediatric serogroups, HIV-infected children have more antibiotic-resistant isolates and have a different clinical presentation than do HIV-uninfected children.