Selective posterior rhizotomy is a neurosurgical procedure for reduction of spasticity that has been used successfully for highly selected patients with cerebral palsy. An improved surgical technique was developed in 1981 that is now used at several major medical centers throughout the United States. Physical therapists have a major role in management, including patient referral, preoperative assessment, postoperative treatment, and follow-up. Careful patient selection and intensive postoperative physical therapy are believed essential for optimal outcome. Continued research should lead to refinement of selection and treatment protocols and improved understanding of functional outcome of this neurosurgical procedure.