The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between preoperative comorbidities, surgical complications, and length of stay (LOS) after hip reconstruction in nonambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP).
This single-center retrospective cohort study included 127 patients undergoing hip surgery between 2007 and 2016 who were diagnosed with CP (GMFCS IV/V). The cohort was 54% Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) V with an average age at surgery of 9 years (range, 3-19 y). Preoperative comorbidities included: presence of a gastrostomy tube, respiratory difficulty requiring positive-pressure ventilation or tracheostomy, history of seizures, and nonverbal status. Complications were dichotomized into major and minor complications according to severity. Multivariable general linear modeling was used to identify factors associated with complications and prolonged LOS.
The median LOS in the hospital was 6 days (intequartile range, 5-9 d). The majority of procedures (72%) involved both the femur and acetabulum and 82% of surgeries were performed bilaterally. Patients who experienced a major complication were mostly GMFCS level V and were more likely to spend time in intensive care unit than postanesthetic care unit (P=0.001). Multivariable analysis for a major complication determined that the addition of each comorbid risk fact increased the odds of developing a major complication by 2.6 times (odds ratio, 2.64; 95% confidence interval, 1.56-4.47; P<0.001) regardless of GMFCS level. Multivariable analysis for prolonged LOS determined that major complications (P<0.001), bilaterality (P=0.01), age (P=0.02), female sex (P=0.01), and GMFCS V (P<0.001) were all factors that increased LOS. Migration percentage, acetabular index odds ratio, and pelvic obliquity were not associated with prolonged LOS or the presence of a major complication.
From our analysis, the authors found that a patient’s premorbid comorbidities were more predictive of the likelihood of sustaining a major complication than their GMFCS level. Identifying high-risk patients preoperatively may help reduce complications and LOS, which ultimately will improve the quality of care the authors deliver to nonambulatory children with CP undergoing hip reconstruction surgery.
Level of Evidence:
Level III—retrospective cohort study.