The burden of surgical treatment for infantile developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is unknown. We aimed to investigate the epidemiology of operative DDH reductions in the United States and identify potential at-risk populations.
The Healthcare Utilization Project Kids’ Inpatient Database (1997 to 2012) were analyzed. International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9) codes identified inpatient hospitalizations for DDH reductions excluding neuromuscular cases. Hospital variables and patient demographics were captured. Weighted population-level counts were calculated to allow for national estimates.
An estimated 5525 (95% confidence interval, 4907.8-6142.2) operative reductions were performed. In total, 73.3% were open with a mean age at the reduction of 2.3 years (95% confidence interval, 2.1-2.5). In total, 70.0% were female and 42.3% were white. Regional distribution varied: 36.4% of reductions occurred in the West, 22.8% in the South, 21.9% in the Midwest, and 18.9% in the Northeast. Operative reductions decreased over time; open reductions decreased by 5.6% and closed by 53.4%. Mean age at treatment increased from 1.6 to 3.7 years (P<0.001). On multivariate analysis, age (P<0.001) and geographic location (P<0.05) were associated with open reduction. Patients in the West had increased odds of being Hispanic or Asian/Pacific Islander [odds ratio (OR), 4.9, P<0.001 and OR, 2.8; P=0.008]. In the South and Midwest, the highest income quartile was protective (OR, 0.4; P=0.001 and OR, 0.5; P=0.018).
The frequency of closed reductions decreased more over time compared with open reductions. However, the mean age of children undergoing reductions increased suggesting a possible delay in diagnosis. The data suggests that there is room for improvement in screening. Targeted research in identified populations may reduce the burden of surgical disease in infantile DDH.
*Department of Orthopaedics, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY
†Division of Orthopaedics, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA
No external sources of funding.
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
Reprints: Wudbhav N. Sankar, MD, Division of Orthopedics, 3401 Civic Center Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA 19104. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.