The Tonnis radiographic classification of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) has been used as a prognostic indicator for patients with walking-age DDH. The International Hip Dysplasia Institute (IHDI) classification, a new radiographic classification system, has been proposed to be more reliable by its creators. We sought to validate its reliability using independent observers, to compare it to the Tonnis method, and to assess its prognostic significance in a large cohort of patients.
A consecutive series of walking-age DDH patients were examined radiographically and classified by the Tonnis and IHDI schemes by 3 independent observers. Interobserver agreement was determined using the Kappa method. Clinical data were collected on patients with regard to success of closed reduction, need for later pelvic osteotomy, and presence of subsequent radiographic avascular necrosis (AVN). The prognostic value of the Tonnis and IHDI classifications to predict these clinical outcomes was determined.
A total of 287 hips were available for analysis of the classification schemes. In total, 235 hips underwent attempted closed reduction and were eligible for analysis of successful closed reduction, and 131 hips had >4-year follow-up and were utilized for analysis of late pelvic osteotomy and AVN. Both classifications showed excellent interobserver reliability and in general, there was nonstatistically significant better reliability for the IHDI versus the Tonnis classification. In multivariate analysis, both IHDI and Tonnis classifications were found to be predictive of successful closed reduction and need for late pelvic osteotomy. Both methods showed trends toward being predictive of AVN rate, without statistical significance.
The IHDI classification is subjectively more facile to use and has excellent interrelater agreement for classifying the radiographic severity of DDH. It is also reliable in predicting success of closed reduction and need for late pelvic osteotomy. Significance: practitioners and researchers should consider the IHDI classification as a useful classification scheme and prognosticator when considering treatment options for late-presenting DDH.
Practitioners and researchers should consider the IHDI classification as a useful classification scheme and prognosticator when considering treatment options for late-presenting DDH.
Texas Scottish Rite Hospital for Children, Dallas, TX
None of the authors received financial support for this study.
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
Reprints: Brandon A. Ramo, MD, Texas Scottish Rite Hospital for Children, 2222 Welborn Street, Dallas, TX 75219. E-mail: email@example.com.