Multiple Compartment Syndrome in a Pediatric Patient With CMLLee, Dong-Ki MD; Jeong, Woong-Kyo MD, PhD; Lee, Dae-Hee MD, PhD; Lee, Soon-Hyuck MD, PhDJournal of Pediatric Orthopaedics: December 2011 - Volume 31 - Issue 8 - p 889–892 doi: 10.1097/BPO.0b013e318237c3e0 Selected Topics Buy Abstract Author InformationAuthors Article MetricsMetrics Compartment syndrome is a limb-threatening and life-threatening emergency resulting from elevated intracompartmental pressure. Prompt surgical intervention and treatment are necessary to prevent irreparable damage to muscle and nerve tissues. Leukemic infiltration of the muscle is an unusual cause of compartment syndrome and has been documented to occur secondary to hyperleukocytic leukemias, most commonly in acute myeloid leukemia. We present a rare case of multiple compartment syndrome in the buttock and thigh of an 11-year-old male patient with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. The diagnosis of acute compartment syndrome was delayed, causing irreversible tissue damage. Physicians are generally unfamiliar with leukemia-induced complications and may not initially suspect leukemic compartment syndrome because of its rarity. Awareness of its clinical features is critical, because early diagnosis and prompt surgical debridement can prevent significant morbidity and even death. Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Korea University College of Medicine, Anam Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea The authors declare no conflict of interest. Reprints: Soon-Hyuck Lee, MD, PhD, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Korea University College of Medicine, Anam Hospital, Anam-dong 5-ga, Sungbuk-gu, Seoul 136-705, Korea. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. © 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.