Efficacy of Apneic Oxygenation During Pediatric Endotracheal Intubation : Pediatric Emergency Care

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Review Article

Efficacy of Apneic Oxygenation During Pediatric Endotracheal Intubation


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Pediatric Emergency Care 37(10):p 528-532, October 2021. | DOI: 10.1097/PEC.0000000000002539



Because of the abundance of complications associated with peri-intubation hypoxia, maintaining adequate oxygen saturation during endotracheal intubation (ETI) is of great concern. In addition to standard preoxygenation techniques, apneic oxygenation (AO), the continuous flow of passive oxygenation, is a potential tool that can be used to eliminate hypoxia during ETI. Although scarcely studied in the pediatric population, AO has proven effective in reducing the incidence of hypoxia in adult patients with minimal side effects. The objective of this study is to evaluate the use of apneic oxygenation in pediatric patients and to determine its efficacy in preventing or delaying oxygen desaturation during the apneic period of ETI.


This literature review examines 4 studies that evaluate the practice of AO in pediatric patients. A total of 712 patients across 3 randomized control trials and 1 observational study were assigned to either a control group that did not receive any form of AO, a group that did not receive 100% fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2), or an intervention group where various methods of AO were delivered.


Each AO method that provided 100% FiO2 saw a significantly longer time until initial desaturation when compared with those that did not receive any form of AO or those not receiving 100% FiO2.


The findings in this study confirm that the practice of AO is not only efficacious in increasing the time until initial desaturation but also reduces the overall incidence of hypoxia during laryngoscopy in children.


In the October 2021 issue, the name of the second author of “Efficacy of Apneic Oxygenation During Pediatric Endotracheal Intubation” was omitted.

Mark A. Dancy, MSN, RN, CPNP-AC, CFRN, CEN, CPEN remains as the first author, and the second author should appear as Michelle B. Goreth, DNP, CPNP-AC, RN-BC, CTRN, CPEN, CCRN-P, TCRN (Affiliation: Associate Professor, Pediatric and Neonatal Nurse Practitioner Tracks Program Director, Dean’s Emerging Academic Leaders (DEAL) Fellow, University of Mississippi Medical Center, School of Nursing, Jackson, MS).

Pediatric Emergency Care. 38(3):142, March 2022.

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