CME Review ArticleDiagnosis and Management of Neonatal Herpes Simplex Infection in the Emergency DepartmentRamgopal, Sriram MD∗; Wilson, Paria M. MD, MEd†,‡; Florin, Todd A. MD, MSCE∗Author Information ∗Assistant Professor for Pediatrics, Division of Emergency Medicine, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, United States of America †Assistant Professor for Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati, College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States of America ‡Assistant Professor for Pediatrics, Division of Emergency Medicine, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States of America. The authors, faculty, and staff in a position to control the content of this CME activity and their spouses/life partners (if any) have disclosed that they have no financial relationships with, or financial interest in, any commercial organizations relevant to this educational activity. Reprints: Sriram Ramgopal, MD, Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine Department of Pediatrics Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago 225 E Chicago Ave Box 62 Chicago, IL 60611 (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org). Pediatric Emergency Care: April 2020 - Volume 36 - Issue 4 - p 196-202 doi: 10.1097/PEC.0000000000002077 Buy Take the CME Test Metrics Abstract Neonatal herpes simplex virus infection (HSV) is rare in neonates, with an estimated global incidence of 10 per 100,000 live births. Neonatal HSV is challenging to diagnose due to often vague signs and symptoms. Untreated, the mortality of some HSV subtypes exceeds 80%. Overtesting and overtreatment can result in prolonged hospitalizations and expose neonates to medication toxicity. In contrast, prompt evaluation and use of empiric antiviral therapy before the results of definitive testing can improve outcomes for infants with HSV. A wide degree of practice variation exists with respect to testing and treatment for neonatal HSV, and more research is required to safely risk-stratify this population. This review presents the epidemiology, risk factors, presenting features, and emergency department management of neonatal HSV infection. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.