Anaphylaxis is a common, serious, systemic allergic reaction. In the United States, the change of annual hospitalization rates by anaphylaxis-trigger foods and risk factors associated with severity remain unclear.
Hospital discharge records of food-induced anaphylactic reactions of individuals younger than 20 years were obtained from Kids' Inpatient Database in 2006, 2009, and 2012 and were weighted to estimate the number of hospitalizations in the United States. We identified annual hospitalization rates by patients' characteristics and anaphylaxis-trigger foods and investigated factors associated with severity and use of mechanical ventilation with multivariable logistic regression.
A total of 3427 hospitalizations were obtained, and annual hospitalization rates showed a significantly increasing trend from 1.2 per 100,000 children in 2006 to 1.5 per 100,000 children in 2012 (P < 0.001). The leading causes of hospitalizations due to food-induced anaphylaxis were peanuts (0.35–0.48 per 100,000 children), tree nuts and seeds (0.20–0.32 per 100,000 children), and milk products (0.09–0.13 per 100,000 children), with significantly increasing trends during 2006–2012. Milk products were significantly associated with severity (odds ratio [OR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3–2.9). Ages between 13 and 20 years (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.4–5.1) and comorbidity of asthma (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.3–3.4) were significantly associated with the use of mechanical ventilation.
The annual hospitalization rates in the entire United States showed an increasing trend during 2006–2012. The rates of peanuts, tree nuts and seeds, and milk products demonstrated upward trends. Milk products, ages between 13 and 20 years, and comorbidities of asthma were related to severity and morbidity.