Rat Bite Fever A Case Report and Review of the LiteratureWalker, Justin W. BS*; Reyes, Lilia B. MD*†Pediatric Emergency Care: February 2019 - Volume 35 - Issue 2 - p e28–e29 doi: 10.1097/PEC.0000000000000956 Illustrative Cases Buy Abstract Author InformationAuthors Article MetricsMetrics Cases of rat-bite fever (RBF) were reported in the literature for more than 2000 years. Not until recently, however, were attempts made to differentiate between RBF and Streptobacillus moniliformis septic arthritis, 2 arguably different clinical entities. There are limited data regarding S moniliformis septic arthritis and the features that distinguish it from RBF, and most conclude that although clinically disparate diseases, it is difficult to differentiate between them. We report a case of a 17-year-old girl who presented with S moniliformis bacteremia and symptoms that spanned both RBF and S moniliformis septic arthritis. This case emphasizes the difficulty in differentiating the 2 clinical entities and the importance of early diagnosis, proper clinical suspicion, and prompt treatment to achieve positive outcomes. From the *The Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine; and †Department of Emergency Medicine, Penn State Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA. Disclosure: The authors declare no conflict of interest. Reprints: Justin Walker, BS, 500 University Dr, Penn State Hershey College of Medicine, Hershey, PA 17033 (e-mail: Jwalker7@hmc.psu.edu). Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.