This study aimed to determine whether healthy children with fractures resulting from minor accidental trauma have a higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency than that of healthy children without fractures.
This was a prospective case-control study of ambulatory children younger than 18 years with and without fractures in a pediatric emergency department. Evaluation included serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level, complete metabolic panel, and phosphorus level. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a 25(OH)D level of less than 20 ng/mL and insufficiency less than 30 ng/mL but 20 ng/mL or greater. A level of 30 ng/mL or greater was considered sufficient. Fisher exact test was used to test for association between 25(OH)D level and fracture status. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between 25(OH)D levels and the odds of fracture, conditioned on season, age, race, body weight percentile, history of fracture, multivitamin use, and estimated daily milk intake.
The sample included 100 case and 100 control patients. There was no statistical difference in median 25(OH)D levels between fracture and control groups (26.7 vs 25.45 ng/mL, P = 0.84). There was no difference in the proportion of patients with sufficient 25(OH)D levels or in the distribution of sufficient, insufficient, and deficient. After adjusting for male sex and season of enrollment, vitamin D sufficiency was not a significant predictor of fracture status in a multiple variable logistic model (odds ratio, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.51–1.77; Wald P = 0.859).
We found no relationship between vitamin D deficiency and fracture risk in our study population.