CME Review ArticleTumor Lysis Syndrome: Risk Factors, Diagnosis, and ManagementBurns, Rebekah A. MD*; Topoz, Irina MD†; Reynolds, Sally L. MD‡Author Information Assistant Professor (Burns), *Division of *Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle Children’s Hospital, Seattle, WA; Assistant Professor of Pediatrics (Topoz), †Section of Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children’s Hospital Colorado, Aurora, CO; Medical Director, ‡Emergency Department and Associate Professor of Pediatrics (Reynolds) Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL. The authors and staff in a position to control the content of this CME activity and their spouses/life partners (if any) have disclosed that they have no financial relationships with, or financial interest in, any commercial organizations pertaining to this educational activity. Reprints: Irina Topoz, MD, Section of Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine and Children’s Hospital Colorado, 13123 E 16th Ave, Box 251, Aurora, CO 80045 (e-mail: [email protected]). Pediatric Emergency Care: August 2014 - Volume 30 - Issue 8 - p 571-576 doi: 10.1097/PEC.0000000000000195 Buy SDC Take the CME Test Metrics Abstract Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a potentially fatal complication of induction therapy for several types of malignancies. Electrolyte derangements and even downstream complications may also occur prior to the initial presentation to a medical provider, before an oncologic diagnosis has been established. It is therefore imperative that emergency physicians be familiar with the risk factors for TLS in children as well as the criteria for diagnosis and the strategies for prevention and management. Careful evaluation of serum electrolytes, uric acid, and renal function must occur. Patients at risk for TLS and those who already exhibit laboratory or clinical evidence of TLS require close monitoring, aggressive hydration, and appropriate medical treatment. © 2014 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.