Illustrative CasesAcute Renal Failure in a Child With Thrombocytopenic Purpura Caused by Acute Epstein-Barr Virus Infection After Treatment With Anti–D ImmunoglobulinKossiva, Lydia MD, PhD*; Kyriakou, Dimitrios MD*; Mitsioni, Andromachi MD, PhD†; Garoufi, Anastasia MD, PhD*Author Information From the *Second Department of Pediatrics, Athens University, and †Division of Nephrology, “P&A Kyriakou” Children’s Hospital, Athens, Greece. Disclosure: The authors declare no conflict of interest. Reprints: Lydia Kossiva, MD, PhD, Department of Pediatrics, “P&A Kyriakou” Children’s Hospital, Athens University, Medical School, Athens, Greece, Thevon & Levadias str, 11527, Athens, Greece (e-mail: [email protected]). Pediatric Emergency Care: June 2013 - Volume 29 - Issue 6 - p 748-750 doi: 10.1097/PEC.0b013e318294f3a5 Buy Metrics Abstract Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) in children is usually a benign, self-limiting disorder. An acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection usually causes atypical lymphocytosis and mild decrease in platelets. Severe thrombocytopenia is an extremely rare complication. Anti–D immunoglobulin has been used for treatment of ITP in Rh(D)-positive nonsplenectomized patients. Severe hemolysis and acute renal failure are extremely rare complications that may be aggravated by the presence of an acute EBV infection. It is believed that anti–D immunoglobulin triggers an unusual virus-induced immune response causing hemolysis. We present a 4-year-old girl with ITP caused by an acute EBV infection that developed acute kidney injury following treatment with anti–D immunoglobulin. The patient recovered completely from thrombocytopenia and renal dysfunction. Intravascular hemolysis and acute kidney injury are consistent with anti–D immunoglobulin mechanism of action. Pediatric patients treated with anti–D immunoglobulin for ITP should be closely monitored for signs and symptoms of hemolysis that may be aggravated by the presence of EBV infection leading to impaired renal function. © 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.