The objective of the study was to evaluate the factors associated with abnormal laboratory findings in patients visiting the emergency department (ED) after having their first seizure.
We included ED patients with first seizures and divided them into groups based on normal and abnormal laboratory results for serum levels of sodium, potassium, calcium, and glucose. We evaluated the differences in age, sex, the presence of fever, the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms, the duration and pattern of the seizure, and whether the seizure was still present at the ED.
We evaluated 240 patients. Among them, abnormalities were found in 83 (34.8%) of 238 for serum sodium, 16 (6.7%) of 238 for potassium, 11 (6.2%) of 177 for calcium, and 121 (52.3%) of 231 for glucose. In the serum sodium and calcium group, no differences in associated factors between patients with and without abnormal laboratory results were found. However, results revealed differences in seizure duration between patients with and without abnormal laboratory glucose results (P = 0.005) and in age between patients with normal and abnormal potassium results (P = 0.002).
There was no significant association among the factors of sex, fever, gastrointestinal symptoms, seizure duration, and seizures in patients who came to the ED with electrolyte abnormalities after a first seizure. However, glucose level abnormalities may have an association with increased seizure duration. We still do not have any suggestions as to which associated factors should be considered when doing common blood examinations in these patients.