BURSTEIN JONATHAN L. MD; FLEISHER, GARY R. MDPediatric Emergency Care: June 1994 Original Articles: PDF Only Buy Abstract Several studies have questioned whether vaccination, especially against pertussis, increases the risk of invasive bacterial disease in young children in the immediate postvaccination period. In most cases, the antecedent of invasive bacterial disease is occult bacteremia. Therefore, we conducted a case control study of children seen in an emergency department to determine whether there was an increased risk of occult bacteremia associated with recent vaccination. The case patients were obtained from an ongoing multicenter study of antibiotics for the management of suspected occult bacteremia; two age-matched controls were chosen for each case patient, consisting of one series of febrile nonbacteremic children and a second series of nonfebrile children with noninfectious complaints. The intervals from most recent vaccination to emergency department presentation were compared among case and control patients using the two-tailed I test. There was no significant difference in the time since last vaccination with any antigen, or with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis in particular, among the case patients and patients in either control series. Recent vaccination was not associated with increased susceptibility to occult bacteremia among these children. © Lippincott-Raven Publishers.