FRIEDLAND LEONARD R. MD; BELL, LOUIS M. MD; RUTSTEIN, RICHARD MDPediatric Emergency Care: April 1991 Article: PDF Only Buy Abstract A retrospective review was conducted of 22 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected children under 13 years of age presenting to an inner city pediatric emergency department to determine their clinical manifestations of disease and utilization of emergency department services. When compared with a population of 78 normal children, the infected children were more likely to present with cough, difficulty in breathing, and lethargy. Pneumonia, diarrhea, and dehydration were more common diagnoses in the infected children, who were more likely to be admitted, had more invasive procedures, and required more professional staff to provide care. There was no significant difference in the frequency of visits (visits/month of age) when comparing the two groups. As expected, the infected children presented with problems associated with pediatric HIV-1 infection. Our results suggest that HIV-1-infected children require an increased level of care in the emergency department and subsequent admission to the hospital. These children did not visit the emergency department more frequently than the controls. This may be the result of an active outpatient HIV clinic in our hospital, which is available to both scheduled and unscheduled patients. © Lippincott-Raven Publishers.