1Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA.
2Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London, United Kingdom.
3Department of Medicine, Division of Critical Care, and Department of Health Research Methods and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.
4Department of Pediatrics (to Dr. Agus), Department of Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain (to Drs. Mehta and Randolph.), Boston Children’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.
5C.S. Mott Children’s Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI.
6St. Mary’s Hospital, London, United Kingdom.
7Paediatric Critical Care Research Group, The University of Queensland and Queensland Children’s Hospital, Brisbane, QLD, Australia.
8Red Cross War Memorial Children’s Hospital and University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
9Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London, United Kingdom.
10Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.
11University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
12Connecticut Children’s Medical Center, Hartford, CT.
13Duke Children’s, Durham, NC.
14St. Christopher’s Hospital for Children, Philadelphia, PA.
15Texas Children’s Hospital, Houston, TX.
16Paris South University Hospitals—Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Paris, France.
17Physiopathology and Therapeutic Innovation Unit—INSERM U999, South Paris-Saclay University, Paris, France.
18King’s College Hospital, London, United Kingdom.
19University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust and University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom.
20The Latin America Sepsis Institute, São Paulo, Brazil.
21Nationwide Children’s Hospital, Columbus, OH.
22Rady Children’s Hospital, San Diego, CA.
23Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Lyon, Lyon, France.
24Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
25All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
26Children’s Hospital of Richmond at VCU, Richmond, VA.
27Beatrix Children’s Hospital, Groningen, The Netherlands.
28Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
29National University Health System, Singapore.
30Royal Children’s Hospital, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
31Rigshospitalet Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
32Children’s Hospital of Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA.
33New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY.
34Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY.
35Advocate Children’s Hospital, Park Ridge, IL.
36Apollo Hospitals, Chennai, India.
37Johns Hopkins Children’s Center, Baltimore, MD.
38Children’s Hospital Colorado, Aurora, CO.
39University of the West of England, Bristol, United Kingdom.
40College of Nursing, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA.
41St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN.
42Cincinnati Children’s Hospital, Cincinnati, OH.
43Seattle Children’s Hospital, Seattle, WA.
44British Columbia Children’s Hospital, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
45Institute of Integrative Biology of the Cell-CNRS, CEA, Univ Paris Sud, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.
These guidelines are simultaneously being published in Pediatric Critical Care Medicine (DOI: 10.1097/PCC.0000000000002197) and Intensive Care Medicine (DOI: 10.1007/s00134-019-05877-7).
The following sponsoring organizations with formal liaison appointees endorse this guideline: American Academy of Pediatrics; American Association of Critical-Care Nurses; American College of Chest Physicians; American College of Emergency Physicians; American Thoracic Society; Australian and New Zealand Intensive Care Society; Canadian Critical Care Society; European Society of Neonatal and Pediatric Intensive Care; Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society; Scandinavian Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine; Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists; UK Sepsis Trust; World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies.
The Society of Critical Care Medicine guidelines are intended for general information only, are not medical advice, and do not replace professional advice, which should be sought for any medical condition. The full disclaimer for guidelines can be accessed at https://www.sccm.org/Research/Guidelines/Guidelines.
Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal’s website (http://journals.lww.com/ccmjournal).
Drs. Weiss and Peters served as arbiters for conflict interest management and adjudication throughout the guidelines process following standard operating procedures set forth by Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) and endorsed by European Society of Intensive Care Medicine. Dr. Weiss participates in Pediatric Acute Lung Injury and Sepsis Investigators (PALISI) and Shock Society. Dr. Peters participates in the UK PICS study group (vice-chair) and has testified as an expert witness in cases of clinical negligence, causation of injuries. Dr. Agus participates in the American Academy of Pediatrics, Pediatric Academic Societies, American Pediatric Society, Society for Pediatric Research, and The American Society for Clinical Investigation, and he has testified as an expert witness in cases related to ICU and/or endocrinology in children. Dr. Flori participates in American Thoracic Society (ATS) State Chapter (Executive Board Member—Michigan and California State Chapters) and PALISI Network (Steering committee member for various studies being implemented through the Network from intramural funding, governmental, or grant funding from Gerber Foundation). Dr. Nadel (past president) received funding from La Jolla Pharmaceutical (consulting), and he participates in the European Society of Pediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care Medicine (ESPNIC) (Medical President). Dr. Brierley (past president) participates in the ESPNIC. Dr. Carrol participates in NICE (Diagnostic Advisory Committee panel) and National Institutes for Health Research (two scientific panels, i4i and DTF). Dr. Cheifetz participates in American Association for Respiratory Care and ATS (volunteer activities) and has testified as an expert witness for medical malpractice cases, he is an advisor to Philips, and a contributor to Up-to-Date. Dr. Cies received funding from Allergan, Merck, Thermo Fisher Scientific, and Atlantic Diagnostic Laboratories (consultant), and he participates in Pediatric Pharmacy Advocacy Group (multiple positions), Society of Infectious Diseases Pharmacists (Vice-Chair of the Inter-organizations Liaison Committee), and the American College of Clinical Pharmacists (member and fellow). Dr. Cruz has provided testimony for legal cases involving children with tuberculosis-related meningitis and is an associate editor for Pediatrics. Dr. De Luca serves as Medical President-elect on the Executive Committee of ESPNIC, he served as a consultant and lecturer on the external advisory board and received research and educational grants from Chiesi Farmaceutici S.p.A and AbbVie, and travel grants from AbbVie, he has been a lecturer for Philips, Radiometer, and Waire. Dr. Faust served as chair of the UK NICE Guideline Committee for Sepsis in Children and Adults published in 2016 and for Lyme disease published in 2018, serves as a regional representative to the UK NHS England Clinical Reference Group for commissioning pediatric specialist medicine care (immunology and infection). Dr. Hall receives funding from La Jolla Pharmaceuticals (consultant on the data safety monitoring board for a clinical trial of a sepsis therapeutic), and he participates in the ATS (online journal club editor) and the American Board of Pediatrics (Critical Care Medicine sub-board). Dr. Ishimine participates in SAEM (Consensus Conference Co-Chair), American Board of Pediatrics/American Board of Emergency Medicine (Immediate Past Chair of the Pediatric Emergency Medicine Subboard), and the American College of Emergency Physicians (Pediatric Emergency Medicine Committee member). Dr. Javouhey received funding from CSL Behring (trial on Intravenous Immunoglobulins in toxic shock syndrome in children). Dr. Karam participates in BloodNet, PALISI, ISBT, AABB, and CCCTG. Dr. Kneyber participates in the ESPNIC. Dr. MacLaren participates in Extracorporeal Life Support Organization (Executive Committee). Dr. Mehta participates in the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (president). Dr. Møller participates in the Science Systems and Applications (board member). Dr. Newth received funding from Philips Research North America (consulting concerning monitoring in PICU), and he participates in the ATS. Dr. Nishisaki’s institutional department receives an unrestricted grant from Nihon Kohden (involves an activity to develop a device to measure capillary refill time), and he participates in the Society for Simulation in Healthcare and International Society for Pediatric Simulation. Dr. Nunnally reports service on committees and board seats for the SCCM’s American College of Critical Care Medicine (Regent), Society of Critical Care Anesthesiologists (director), the American Society of Anesthesiologists (committee), International Anesthesia Research Society, and NYSA. Dr. Randolph’s institution received funding from Genentech (influenza biomarker study research support); she has received funding from Bristol Myers Squibb (consultant in 2017) and La Jolla Pharmaceuticals (design of pediatric septic shock trial of angiotensin II); and she participates in the ATS and the International Sepsis Forum. Dr. Ranjit participates as the Chancellor of College of Pediatric Critical Care, India. Dr. Tume participates in ESPNIC (Nursing President) and the UK PICS Scientific and Education Committee. Dr. Verger participates in the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses (Cert. Corp. Governance Committee) and the Academy of Nursing (Acute and Critical Care Special Interest Group). Dr. Williams participates in the Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Society. Dr. Wolf received funding support for participation in industry-sponsored research from Merck & Co, Astellas, and Cempra Pharmaceuticals, and he received other support from Karius, Empatica, and Bluespark Technologies. Dr. Zimmerman received funding from Immunexpress, Seattle and is Past President of SCCM (sepsis biomarker research), and he participates in the AAP and Pediatric Academic Society. Dr. Tissieres received funding from Baxter acute therapies, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Chiesi Farmaceutici S.p.A., Faron Pharmaceuticals (consulting, renal replacement therapy), and Biomerieux, funding from La Jolla Pharmaceuticals, Chiesi Farmaceutici S.p.A., and is President ESPNIC (research grant, biomarkers sepsis), and he participates in the Swiss Intensive Care Society, Swiss Pediatric Society, and the French Society of Intensive Care. The remaining authors have disclosed that they do not have any potential conflicts of interest.
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