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Population Pharmacokinetics of Vancomycin in Pediatric Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation*

Moffett, Brady S. PharmD, MPH1,2; Morris, Jennifer PharmD, BCPS, BCPPS, FCCM1,2; Galati, Marianne MSW, MLIS3; Munoz, Flor MD, MSc2; Arikan, Ayse A. MD2

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine: October 2018 - Volume 19 - Issue 10 - p 973-980
doi: 10.1097/PCC.0000000000001682
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Objectives: Describe the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in pediatric patients undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and provide dosing recommendations to attain an area under the curve for 24 hours greater than 400 in this population.

Design: Retrospective, population pharmacokinetic analysis.

Setting: PICU of a large tertiary care children’s hospital.

Interventions: Population pharmacokinetic analysis and simulation were performed with NONMEM v7.3 (Icon, PLC, Dublin, Ireland).

Patients: Patients less than 19 years old who received IV vancomycin and had serum vancomycin concentration monitoring while undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation from January 1, 2011, to June 30, 2017.

Measurements and Main Results: A total of 93 patients met study criteria (male 51%, median age 0.64 yr [interquartile range 0.07–6.7 yr]). Mean estimated creatinine clearance was 65 ± 47 mL/min/1.73 m2. Patients received 1,116 vancomycin doses (14.6 ± 1.9 mg/kg/dose) and had 433 vancomycin serum concentrations (13.6 ± 6.9 mg/L) at 13.2 ± 10.7 hours after a dose. A two-compartment pharmacokinetic model with allometrically scaled weight on clearance (0.75) and volumes of distribution (1) was developed. Serum creatinine, postmenstrual age were significant covariates for clearance, patient age for central volume of distribution, and albumin for peripheral volume of distribution. Simulation identified a doses of 25–30 mg/kg/dose every 12–24 hours as having the highest percentage of patients with an area under the curve for 24 hours greater than 400 with the highest percentage trough concentrations in the less than 15 mg/L range.

Conclusions: A vancomycin dose of 25–30 mg/kg/dose every 12–24 hours with serum concentration monitoring is a reasonable empiric dosing strategy to obtain an area under the curve for 24 hours greater than 400 in pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients.

1Department of Pharmacy, Texas Children’s Hospital, Houston, TX.

2Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX.

3Texas Medical Center Library, Houston, TX.

*See also p. 1002.

Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal’s website (http://journals.lww.com/pccmjournal).

Dr. Moffett disclosed off-label product use of vancomycin in Pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients. Dr. Morris received funding from American College of Clinical Pharmacy (travel reimbursement for board preparatory course faculty). Dr. Munoz received support for article research from the National Institutes of Health. Dr. Arikan received funding from Baxter. Ms. Galati disclosed that she does not have any potential conflicts of interest.

For information regarding this article, E-mail: bsmoffet@texaschildrens.org

Copyright © 2018 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies