Reduced morbidity and mortality associated with lung-protective mechanical ventilation is not proven in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome. This study aims to determine if a lung-protective mechanical ventilation protocol in pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome is associated with improved clinical outcomes.
This pilot study over April 2016 to September 2019 adopts a before-and-after comparison design of a lung-protective mechanical ventilation protocol. All admissions to the PICU were screened daily for fulfillment of the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference criteria and included.
Patients with pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome.
Lung-protective mechanical ventilation protocol with elements on peak pressures, tidal volumes, end-expiratory pressure to FIO2 combinations, permissive hypercapnia, and permissive hypoxemia.
Measurements and Main Results:
Ventilator and blood gas data were collected for the first 7 days of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome and compared between the protocol (n = 63) and nonprotocol groups (n = 69). After implementation of the protocol, median tidal volume (6.4 mL/kg [5.4–7.8 mL/kg] vs 6.0 mL/kg [4.8–7.3 mL/kg]; p = 0.005), PaO2 (78.1 mm Hg [67.0–94.6 mm Hg] vs 74.5 mm Hg [59.2–91.1 mm Hg]; p = 0.001), and oxygen saturation (97% [95–99%] vs 96% [94–98%]; p = 0.007) were lower, and end-expiratory pressure (8 cm H2O [7–9 cm H2O] vs 8 cm H2O [8–10 cm H2O]; p = 0.002] and PaCO2 (44.9 mm Hg [38.8–53.1 mm Hg] vs 46.4 mm Hg [39.4–56.7 mm Hg]; p = 0.033) were higher, in keeping with lung protective measures. There was no difference in mortality (10/63 [15.9%] vs 18/69 [26.1%]; p = 0.152), ventilator-free days (16.0 [2.0–23.0] vs 19.0 [0.0–23.0]; p = 0.697), and PICU-free days (13.0 [0.0–21.0] vs 16.0 [0.0–22.0]; p = 0.233) between the protocol and nonprotocol groups. After adjusting for severity of illness, organ dysfunction and oxygenation index, the lung-protective mechanical ventilation protocol was associated with decreased mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.16–0.88).
In pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome, a lung-protective mechanical ventilation protocol improved adherence to lung-protective mechanical ventilation strategies and potentially mortality.