To determine impact of enteral nutrition delivery on the relationship among inflammation, insulin resistance, and outcomes following pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass surgery.
Pilot, randomized study analyzed according to intention-to-treat analysis.
Pediatric cardiac ICU.
Infants (≤ 6 mo) undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass.
Patients randomly assigned to receive rapid escalation to enteral nutrition reaching goal feeds by 27 hours or standard feeding practice reaching goal feeds by 63 hours. Feeds were initiated on the first postoperative day.
Measurements and Main Results:
Fifty patients were randomized equally to study arms. Patients were a median (interquartile range) of 16 days old (7–110 d old), undergoing biventricular surgery (88%) with a median cardiopulmonary bypass time of 125 minutes (105–159 min). Serial blood samples were drawn before and after cardiopulmonary bypass, cardiac ICU admission, and every 12 hours (up to 96 hr) for glucose, insulin, and cytokines (interleukin-1α, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, interleukin-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α) levels. Glucose-insulin ratio was calculated to quantify insulin resistance. Patient characteristics, time to enteral nutrition initiation, enteral nutrition interruptions, and insulin administration were similar across intervention arms. FF reached goal feeds at similar intervals as standard feeding (39 hr [30–60 hr] vs 60 hr [21–78 hr]; p = 0.75). No difference in cytokine, insulin, or glucose-insulin ratio was noted between groups. Higher inflammation was associated with increased glucose-insulin ratio and higher risk of adverse events. In multivariable models of interleukin-8, FF was associated with increased glucose-insulin ratio (estimate of effect [95% CI], 0.152 [0.033–0.272]; p = 0.013). Although higher interleukin-8 was associated with an elevated risk of adverse event, this relationship was possibly mitigated by FF (odds ratio [95% CI], 0.086 [0.002–1.638]; p = 0.13).
A FF strategy was not associated with changes to early enteral nutrition delivery. Inflammation, insulin resistance, and morbidity were similar, but FF may modify the relationship between inflammation and adverse event. Multicenter nutrition studies are possible and necessary in this vulnerable population.