Cell cycle arrest urine biomarkers have recently been shown to be early indicators of acute kidney injury in various clinical settings in critically ill adults and children. The product of tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase -1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-7 concentrations/1,000 (TIMP-1) × (IGFBP-7) provides stratification of acute kidney injury-risk in adults with critical illness. The present study explores the predictive accuracy of (TIMP-1) × (IGFBP-7) measured early after cardiopulmonary bypass for cardiac surgery-related acute kidney injury in neonates and infants, a population in whom such data are not yet available.
A tertiary referral pediatric cardiac ICU.
Fifty-seven neonates and 110 infants undergoing surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.
Measurements and Main Results:
(TIMP-1) × (IGFBP-7) was measured on the NephroCheck (Astute Medical, San Diego, CA) platform preoperatively, less than 1 hour of cardiopulmonary bypass and 1–3 hours of cardiopulmonary bypass. The incidence of postoperative acute kidney injury, dialysis, and/or death were compared among quintiles of postoperative (TIMP-1) × (IGFBP-7). Multivariable regression was used to assess the added predictive value for renal events of (TIMP-1) × (IGFBP-7) over clinical models. Basal (TIMP-1) × (IGFBP-7) increased with age at surgery (regression coefficient = 0.004 ± 0.001; p = 0.005). (TIMP-1) × (IGFBP-7) increased after cardiopulmonary bypass. Neonates had lower postoperative (TIMP-1) × (IGFBP-7) compared with older infants, despite undergoing longer surgeries and experiencing a higher incidence of postoperative renal events. (TIMP-1) × (IGFBP-7) was not associated with acute kidney injury, dialysis, and/or death and was not a predictor of the aforementioned events when added to a clinical acute kidney injury model including age, duration of cardiopulmonary bypass, and mechanical ventilation prior to surgery.
These findings question the usefulness of (TIMP-1) × (IGFBP-7) for the prediction of cardiac surgery-related acute kidney injury in neonates and infants when measured within 3 hours of cardiopulmonary bypass.