The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence, severity, and outcomes of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome in a resource-limited country. In addition, we sought to explore the predisposing factors that predicted the initial severity, a change from mild to moderate-severe severity, and mortality.
PICU in Songklanagarind Hospital, Songkhla, Thailand.
Children 1 month to 15 years old with acute respiratory failure admitted to the PICU from January 2013 to December 2016.
Measurements and Main Results:
From a total of 1,738 patients admitted to PICU, 129 patients (prevalence 7.4%) were diagnosed as pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome using the Pediatric Acute Lung Injury Consensus Conference definition. The patients were categorized by severity. Fifty-seven patients (44.2%) were mild, 35 (27.1%) were moderate, and 37 (28.1%) were severe. After multivariable analysis was performed, factors significantly associated with moderate to severe disease at the initial diagnosis were Pediatric Risk of Mortality III score (odds ratio, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.03–1.15; p = 0.004), underlying oncologic/hematologic disorder (odds ratio, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.12–0.77; p = 0.012), and serum albumin level (odds ratio, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.27–0.80; p = 0.006), whereas underlying oncologic/hematologic disorder (odds ratio, 5.33; 95% CI, 1.33–21.4) and hemoglobin (odds ratio, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.44–0.89) predicted the progression of this syndrome within 7 days. The 30-day all-cause mortality rate was 51.2% (66/129). The predictors of mortality were the Pediatric Risk of Mortality III score (odds ratio, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.02–1.24; p = 0.017), underlying oncologic/hematologic disorder (odds ratio, 7.81; 95% CI, 2.18–27.94; p = 0.002), receiving systemic steroids (odds ratio, 4.04; 95% CI, 1.25–13.03; p = 0.019), having air leak syndrome (odds ratio, 5.45; 95% CI, 1.57–18.96; p = 0.008), and presenting with multiple organ dysfunction (odds ratio, 7.41; 95% CI, 2.00–27.36; p = 0.003).
The prevalence and mortality rate of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome in a developing country are high. The oncologic/hematologic comorbidity had a significant impact on the severity of progression and mortality.