To evaluate the performance of an extubation readiness test based on a spontaneous breathing trial using pressure support.
Retrospective chart review.
Pediatric intensive care unit.
All infants and children admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit requiring intubation from July 2007 to December 2008 were eligible for this study.
Routine use of an extubation readiness test using pressure support set according to endotracheal tube size to determine completion of weaning and readiness for extubation.
Measurements and Main Results:
A total of 755 extubation readiness tests were performed in 538 patients with a pass rate of 83%. Of 500 children who passed the extubation readiness test and were extubated without planned noninvasive ventilation use, the extubation failure rate was 11.2% (5.8% required reintubation). Extubation failure was defined as need for noninvasive ventilation or reintubation within 24 hrs of planned extubation. Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant association between duration of mechanical ventilation and extubation failure. Children ventilated for over 48 hrs had an 18.5% failure rate despite passing an extubation readiness test before extubation and the extubation readiness test was not a significant predictor of extubation success. Most extubation failures were the result of inadequate gas exchange attributable to lower respiratory tract dysfunction.
A spontaneous breathing trial using pressure support set at higher levels for smaller endotracheal tubes overestimates readiness for extubation in children and contributes to a higher failed extubation rate. The objective data obtained during an extubation readiness test may help to identify patients who will benefit from extubation to noninvasive ventilation.