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Sonographic Anatomy at a Glance

Jakowski, Joseph D. MD; Reid, Alycia D. RT, RDMS

doi: 10.1097/PCR.0b013e318281c8bc

The pathologist who performs ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspirations needs a basic familiarity with the normal sonographic anatomy of a number of superficial organs and structures as well as their anatomic variations. This knowledge will be essential to recognizing abnormal pathological findings during the ultrasound examination, to augment the patient’s physical examination and for the overall success of the ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration. Herein we present a brief introduction to ultrasound scanning techniques and an overview of the normal sonographic anatomy of the thyroid, parathyroid, breast, salivary gland, and soft tissue structures including bone, nerve, vascular structures, and connective tissues.

From the *Division of Anatomic Pathology, Department of Pathology, Virginia Commonwealth University Health Systems, Richmond, VA.

Reprints: Joseph D. Jakowski, MD, Division of Anatomic Pathology, Virginia Commonwealth University Health Systems, Gateway Bldg, 6th Floor, Room 6-203, 1200 E. Marshall St, Richmond, VA 23298. E-mail:

The authors have no funding or conflicts of interest to declare.

© 2013 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.