An typical case. the surgical specimen is From the mandible. The microscopic features include a cellular fibrous connective tissue containing mineralized tissue that in areas is trabecular bone, although other areas reveal dropler or psammomitoid-like material. There is no atypia noted, and the initial impression is that the lesion is benign. The diagnostic dilemma faced is that of benign fibro-osseous lesions, A partial list of entities encompassed by this term includes fibrous dysplasia, cherubism, ossifying and cementifying fibroma, Paget's disease, and cemento-osseous dyaplasia. There is considerable overlap in the histologic features of the above, with die exception of cherubism. In the others, similar, if not identical, histologic fields could be found in each. Therefore, the term fibro-osseaous. lesion is descriptive and generic, and in most cases histologic features alone are inadequate to make a definitive diagnosis. The diagnosis depends on additional clinical and radiographic data, gross pathology, and in Paget's disease serum alkaline phosphatase levels. It is also important to identify whether lesions are confined to the jaws and whether they are singular or multiple. The current report presents a case of cemento-osseous dysplasia and discusses its clinicopathologic spectrum.