In the 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin (FOLFIRINOX) era, the benefit of surgery versus definitive radiation for borderline resectable (BR) and locally advanced (LA) unresectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is not well defined. Our primary objective was to identify the survival impact of surgery for BR and LA unresectable PDAC treated with induction FOLFIRINOX.
We performed a single-center retrospective review of BR and LA PDAC treated with FOLFIRINOX from 2010 to 2018. The overall survival of surgery and consolidative radiotherapy was estimated in the Kaplan-Meier method and compared via the log-rank test. Subgroup analyses were conducted for BR and LA patients.
We identified 101 BR and LA PDAC patients treated with induction FOLFIRINOX (41 surgeries and 60 consolidative radiotherapies). Surgery patients were 68.3% (28/41) BR and 31.7% (13/41) LA, whereas consolidative radiotherapy patients were 30% (18/60) BR and 70% (42/60) LA. The R0 resection rate was 100%, and 46.3% (19/41) received preoperative radiation. Median overall survival of surgery versus consolidative radiotherapy was 42.3 versus 19.6 months, respectively (P < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, surgery associated with improved survival.
Surgery after induction FOLFIRINOX is feasible and has a clinically meaningful survival benefit in BR and LA PDAC.