In Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS), pancreatic insufficiency can lead to malabsorption of fat-soluble vitamins and trace elements. The aim of this study was to assess the serum concentrations of vitamins A and E, zinc, copper, and selenium and their deficiencies.
This retrospective review was performed in 21 children (12 were male; median age, 7.8 years) with genetically confirmed SDS at a tertiary pediatric hospital. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) and vitamin or trace elements supplements were documented.
Twenty patients (95%) had pancreatic insufficiency receiving PERT, 10 (47%) had a combined vitamin and trace element deficiency, 6 (29%) had an isolated vitamin deficiency, and 4 (19%) had an isolated trace element deficiency. Vitamins A and E deficiency occurred in 16 (76%) and 4 (19%) of 21, respectively. Low serum selenium was found in 10 (47%), zinc deficiency in 7 (33%), and copper deficiency in 5 (24%). Eleven patients (52%) were on multivitamin supplementation, and 2 (10%) on zinc and selenium supplements. No statistical differences were found between repeated measurements for all micronutrients.
More than 50% of the children had vitamin A and selenium deficiencies despite adequate supplementation of PERT and supplements. Micronutrients should be routinely measured in SDS patients to prevent significant complications.