Reduced conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and psychological distress co-occur frequently in many pain conditions. This study explored whether common negative pain cognitions and emotional factors were related to lower CPM in individuals across the spectrum from acute to chronic pain. Previously collected data on the CPM effect, pain-related cognitions (fear of movement, pain catastrophizing), and emotional distress (depression, anxiety) through questionnaires from 1142 individuals with acute, subacute, or chronic pain were used. The presence of negative psychological factors was dichotomized according to cutoff values for questionnaires. Associations between the presence of each negative psychological factor and the amplitude of pain reduction in the CPM paradigm was explored with Generalized Linear Models adjusted for sex, age, body mass index, and pain duration. A secondary analysis explored the cumulative effect of psychological factors on CPM. When dichotomized according to cutoff scores, 20% of participants were classified with anxiety, 19% with depression, 36% with pain catastrophizing, and 48% with fear of movement. The presence of any negative psychological factor or the cumulative sum of negative psychological factors was associated with lower CPM (individual factor: β between −0.15 and 0.11, P ≥ 0.08; total: β between −0.27 and −0.12, P ≥ 0.06). Despite the common observation of psychological factors and reduced CPM in musculoskeletal pain, these data challenge the assumption of a linear relationship between these variables across individuals with acute, subacute, and chronic pain. Arguably, there was a nonsignificant tendency for associations in nonexpected directions, which should be studied in a more homogenous population.