Consensus reportStudying sex and gender differences in pain and analgesia: A consensus reportGreenspan, Joel D.a,b,*,1; Craft, Rebecca M.c,1; LeResche, Lindad,1; Arendt-Nielsen, Larse; Berkley, Karen J.f; Fillingim, Roger B.g; Gold, Michael S.h; Holdcroft, Anitai; Lautenbacher, Stefanj; Mayer, Emeran A.k; Mogil, Jeffrey S.l; Murphy, Anne Z.m; Traub, Richard J.a,b the Consensus Working Group of the Sex, Gender, and Pain SIG of the IASP Author Information aDepartment of Biomedical Sciences, University of Maryland Dental School, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD 21201-1510, USA bResearch Center for Neuroendocrine Influences on Pain, Baltimore, MD 21201-1510, USA cDepartment of Psychology, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-4820, USA dDepartment of Oral Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-6370, USA eLaboratory for Experimental Pain Research, Department of Health Science and Technology, Center for Sensory-Motor Interaction, Aalborg University, Fredrik Bajers Vej 7, DK-9220 Aalborg, Denmark fDepartment of Psychology and Program in Neuroscience, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306, USA gDepartment of Community Dentistry and Behavioral Science, University of Florida College of Dentistry, Gainesville, FL 32610-3628, USA hDepartment of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA iDivision of Surgery, Oncology, Reproductive Biology and Anaesthetics, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, Imperial College, London SW10 9NH, UK jDepartment of Physiological Psychology, University of Bamberg, Bamberg 96045, Germany kCenter for Neurovisceral Sciences and Women’s Health, and Departments of Medicine, Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, and Physiology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 900095-1792, USA lDepartment of Psychology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada PQ H3A 1B1 mDepartment of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303-0389, USA *Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 410 706 2027; fax: +1 410 706 0193. E-mail: [email protected] 1These authors contributed equally to this report. E-mail: [email protected] 2Sex, Gender, and Pain SIG Consensus Working Group: Anna Maria Aloisi, University of Sienna, Italy; Lars Arendt-Nielsen, Aalborg University, Denmark; Art Arnold, UCLA, USA; Dave Bereiter, University of Minnesota, USA; Karen Berkley, Florida State University, USA; Jeffrey Blaustein, University of Massachusetts, USA; Richard Bodnar, Queens College, CUNY, USA; Lin Chang, UCLA, USA; Rebecca Craft, Washington State University, USA; Roger Fillingim, University of Florida, USA; Alan Gintzler, SUNY Downstate, USA; Michael Gold, University of Pittsburgh, USA; Joel Greenspan, University of Maryland, USA; Ken Hargreaves, University of Texas, San Antonio, USA; Anita Holdcroft, Imperial College, London, UK; Edmund Keogh, University of Bath, UK; Stefan Lautenbacher, University of Bamburg, Germany; Linda LeResche, University of Washington, USA; Emeran Mayer, UCLA, USA; Margaret McCarthy, University of Maryland, USA; Jeffrey Mogil, McGill University, Canada; Anne Murphy, Georgia State University, USA; Bruce Naliboff, UCLA, USA; Michael Robinson, University of Florida, USA; Meir Steiner, McMaster University, Canada; Christian Stohler, University of Maryland, USA; Richard Traub, University of Maryland, USA; Ursula Wesselmann, Johns Hopkins University, USA; Elizabeth Young, University of Michigan, USA. Submitted September 10, 2007; accepted October 9, 2007. Pain 132():p S26-S45, November 2007. | DOI: 10.1016/j.pain.2007.10.014 Buy Metrics Abstract In September 2006, members of the Sex, Gender and Pain Special Interest Group of the International Association for the Study of Pain met to discuss the following: (1) what is known about sex and gender differences in pain and analgesia; (2) what are the “best practice” guidelines for pain research with respect to sex and gender; and (3) what are the crucial questions to address in the near future? The resulting consensus presented herein includes input from basic science, clinical and psychosocial pain researchers, as well as from recognized experts in sexual differentiation and reproductive endocrinology. We intend this document to serve as a utilitarian and thought-provoking guide for future research on sex and gender differences in pain and analgesia, both for those currently working in this field as well as those still wondering, “Do I really need to study females?” © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.