Neuropathic pain (NeuP) is often characterized by abnormally hypersensitive sensory perception, called hyperalgesia or allodynia, in which innocuous (tactile) stimuli cause intense pain. Accumulating evidence suggests that spinal cord mechanisms underlying NeuP are characterized by temporal activation of microglia (within days) and late activation of astrocytes (within days to weeks).6,10,11 Under nerve injury conditions, microglia produce multiple inflammatory mediators such as IL-1β and TNF-α, subsequently activate c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) and induce the production of chemokines such as C–C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) and C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL1) in astrocytes, which are implicated in pain sensitization.44,45 Accordingly, the astrocyte activation at the late stage after nerve injury would be a good target for the treatment of established NeuP, although the detailed mechanisms remain elusive.
We have reported that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) produced by partial sciatic nerve ligation (pSNL) initiates abnormal hyperalgesia and allodynia through LPA1 receptor mechanisms.9 LPA1 signals also cause demyelination of the dorsal root (DR) fibers, which may cause functional cross-talk between noxious and innocuous sensory fibers underlying allodynia, and upregulation of CaVα2δ19 and ephrin B130 genes in the DR ganglion, which may cause an enhanced spinal pain transmission underlying hyperalgesia. The roles of LPA signals in NeuP also have been supported by many other studies.1,7,13,19,38,43 Pharmacological findings4,14,16,18,31 suggest that LPA signals play key roles in the initiation of NeuP.9,32–35 As the LPA1-mediated demyelination is only found in the DR, but not in the sciatic nerve, which was given partial ligation,21 it is presumed that LPA is produced in the spinal cord and goes back to the DR. Recent studies have revealed that LPA amplifies the LPA production in in vivo and in vitro studies. This feed-forward system is mediated by LPA1, LPA3, and microglia-derived IL-1β.15–17,22,41 In this study, we investigated the roles of LPA signaling in the maintenance of NeuP and underlying mechanisms, by studying the pharmacological blockade of established NeuP by LPA receptor antagonist and glial actions affecting the LPA signaling at the late stage after the pSNL.
2.1. Experimental animals
Male C57BL/6J mice (6-8 weeks old) purchased from TEXAM corporation (Nagasaki, Japan) were used. They were kept in a room maintained at 22 ± 3°C and 55 ± 10% relative humidity for a 12-hour period (lights on at 8:00 AM and off at 8:00 PM), and had free access to a standard laboratory diet and tap water. We used 179 mice for the entire set of experiments. All procedures used in this work were approved by the Nagasaki University Animal Care Committee, and complied with fundamental guidelines for the proper conduct of animal experiments and related activities in academic research institutions under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan.
18:1-LPA was purchased from Cayman Chemicals (Ann Arbor, MI). Ki-16425, an LPA1 and LPA3 antagonist,23 was generously provided by Kirin Brewery Co (Takasaki, Japan), and was dissolved in sesame oil (Sigma, St. Louis, MO) just before administration. For subcutaneous (s.c.) injection, these drugs were dissolved in physiological saline or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF: 125 mM NaCl, 3.8 mM KCl, 1.2 mM KH2PO4, 26 mM NaHCO3, and 10 mM glucose), respectively. L-α-Aminoadipate (L-AA), an astroglial toxin,39 was purchased from Sigma (St. Louis, MO) and administered intrathecally (i.t.) in an amount of 30 nmol per 5 μL of aCSF. Mac1-saporin (a chemical conjugate of mouse monoclonal antibody to CD11b and the ribosome-inactivating protein, saporin) was purchased from Advanced Targeting Systems (San Diego, CA) and injected i.t. in an amount of 30 nmol per 5 μL of aCSF to deplete microglia, as reported2,42
2.3. Nerve injury
For the preparation of peripheral neuropathic pain model, the pSNL was performed as previously described.14 Briefly, the sciatic nerve of the right hind limb was exposed at the high thigh level through a small incision, and the dorsal half of nerve thickness was tightly ligated with a silk suture. We used 50 mg/kg of sodium pentobarbital intraperitoneally (Nacalai Tesque, Kyoto, Japan), which anesthetized and suppressed nociceptive responses at least for 3 hours after the surgery.
2.4. Nociceptive tests
Thermal paw withdrawal tests were used to evaluate the hyperalgesia. In the thermal paw withdrawal test, latency of paw withdrawal on a thermal stimulus was assessed as previously reported.29 Unanesthetized animals were placed in Plexiglas cages on top of a glass sheet, and an adaptation period of 1 hour was allowed. The thermal stimulator (IITC Inc, Woodland Hills, CA) was positioned under the glass sheet, and the focus of the projection bulb was aimed exactly at the middle of right hind paw plantar surface of mouse. A mirror attached to the stimulator permitted visualization of the plantar surface. A cutoff time of 20 seconds was set to prevent tissue damage. During the thermal test, the thresholds were determined from 3 repeated tests at 10-minute intervals. In the mechanical paw pressure test, mice were placed in a Plexiglass chamber on a 6 × 6-mm wire mesh grid floor and allowed to acclimatize for a period of 1 hour, as reported.29,36 A mechanical stimulus was then delivered to the middle of the right hind paw plantar surface using Electronic digital von Frey Anesthesiometer and Rigid Tip (Model 2390, 90 g probe, 0.8 mm in diameter; IITC Inc, Woodland Hills, CA). The pressure needed to induce a flexor response was defined as the pain threshold. A cutoff pressure of 20 g was set to avoid tissue damage.
2.5. Quantification of lysophosphatidic acid by LC-MS/MS
The quantification of LPA was performed as previously described.8 Briefly, the acutely isolated mouse spinal dorsal horn was mixed and sonicated in a total volume of 200 µL MeOH. After centrifugation, 50 µL of the supernatant was diluted 4-fold in MeOH supplemented with an internal standard (2.5 pmol of LPA 17:0). After mixing and centrifugation, the supernatant was filtrated with Duo-filter (0.2 μm pore size, 4 mm inner diameter; YMC, Kyoto, Japan) and used for the analysis. An aliquot (40 µL) of each methanol-extracted sample was injected into the LC-MS/MS system. LC-MS/MS was performed using a TSQ Quantum Ultra triple quadrupole MS (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA) equipped with a heated-electrospray ionization-II (HESI-II) source, with a NANOSPACE SI-II HPLC (Shiseido, Tokyo, Japan). Lysophosphatidic acid was separated on a Capcell Pak ACR C18–reversed phase column (1.5 × 250 mm; Shiseido) using a gradient of 2 solvents, solvent A (5 mM ammonium formate in water, pH4.0) and solvent B (5 mM ammonium formate in 95% [vol/vol] acetonitrile, pH4.0), at a flow rate of 150 µL/minute. The initial condition was set at 60% of solvent B. The following solvent gradient was applied: maintained 60% of solvent B and then followed by a linear gradient to 95% of solvent B from 0.2 to 14 minutes, and held at 95% of B for 3 minutes. Subsequently, the mobile phase was returned to the initial conditions and maintained for 5 minutes. The column eluate was introduced into the MS between 8 and 23 minutes after injection. The column was washed after each sample was applied, the following solvent gradient was used (flow rate: 150 µL/minute): started at 60% of solvent B, a linear gradient to 95% B over 2 minutes, and held at 95% B for 6 minutes, then return to the initial condition and kept for 7 minutes. For MS/MS analysis, the negative HESI-II spray voltage was set at 2500 V, the heated capillary temperature was 350°C, the sheath gas pressure was 65 psi, the auxiliary gas setting was 20 psi, and the heated vaporizer temperature was set at 350°C. Nitrogen was used for both the sheath and the auxiliary gases, and the collision gas (argon) was set at 1.5 mTorr. All the data were acquired using Xcalibur 2.2 operating software (Thermo Fisher Scientific). 18:1-LPA was analyzed by multiple reaction monitoring in negative ion mode. Q1 was set for the deprotonated molecular ion for (m/z 435.47 for 18:1-LPA 18:1). The relative amount of each LPA was calculated from the ratios of their peak areas using the same software as described above.
2.6. Flow cytometry
Freshly isolated lumbar spinal cords (L4-L6) from 5 mice were cut into small fragments (2-3 mm) and transferred into C-tube of gentleMACS to dissociate single-cell suspension, by the manufacture's protocol (Miltenyi Biotec, Bergisch Gladbach, Germany). The tissue was further dissociated using Neural Tissue Dissociation Kit (T) in combination with the gentleMACS Dissociator. Briefly, enzyme Mix1 (solution 1: 50 µL and solution 2: 1900 µL) and 1.3 µL of GolgiStop (BD Biosciences, San Jose, CA) were added to the tissue suspension, followed by homogenization using gentleMACS Dissociator (m_brain_01) and incubation at 37°C for 15 minutes under continuous agitation with MACSMix Tube Rotator. The tube was then resuspended in a gentleMACS Dissociator (m_brain_02) and added enzyme mix 2 (solution 3: 20 mL and solution 4: 10 mL) and incubated with inversion for another 10 minutes at 37°C. After rehomogenization (m_brain_03) and incubation at 37°C for 10 minutes, Hank's balanced salt solution was added to the dissociated cells and centrifuged at 300g for 10 minutes. The supernatant was removed and the cells were resuspended in 30% Percol. After centrifugation at 500g for 25 minutes at 20°C, the cell pellet was washed with Hank's balanced salt solution by use of centrifugation at 1700 rpm for 5 minutes. The cells were then suspended with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and treated with filtration with 70-µm cell strainer (BD Biosciences) to obtain single-cell suspension. The dissociated spinal cord cells were stained with anti-mouse CD11b-PE-Cyanine7 (1:400; eBioscience, San Diego, CA) and ACSA-2-APC (1:40; Miltenyi Biotec) for 30 minutes at 4°C under the condition of protection from light. The anti-mouse CD16/CD32 (FcγIII/II Receptor, clone 2.4G2, 1:800; BD Science) was used to block nonspecific staining of antibodies. Mouse IgG1 κ Isotype Control, PE-Cyanine7 and mouse IgG1 Isotype Control, and APC (eBioscience) were used as negative control. After staining, the cells were washed with PBS containing 2% fetal calf serum twice and filtered through 70-µm nylon mesh. BD FACSVerse flow cytometer (BD biosciences) and FLOWJO (Tomy Digital Biology Co, Ltd, Tokyo, Japan) were used for the fluorescent intensity of ACSA-2- or CD11b-positive population of astrocytes or microglia, respectively.
2.7. Experiments using cultured astrocytes
For the primary culture of astrocytes, whole brains of 3 neonatal mice were placed in DMEM (Nacalai Tesque). Cerebral hemispheres without the olfactory bulb and cerebellum from 12 neonates were cut into small pieces using sharp blades and grinded by a Dounce homogenizer 10 times in 5 mL of DMEM with antibiotics penicillin and streptomycin (Sigma-Aldrich, P4333, MO). The pellet after the centrifugation of cell suspension (0.5 mL) at 1000g for 10 minutes was plated on T175 culture flask (Corning, #431466, NY) and incubated at 37°C in a CO2 incubator. When cells become confluent (7 or 8 days in culture), overlaying microglia on the astrocyte layer were removed by shaking, followed by aspiration. Astrocytes were harvested by adding 1 mL of trypsin-EDTA (Sigma-Aldrich, T4049, MO), followed by incubation at 37°C for 2 to 3 minutes until cells detach from the flask. Harvested astrocytes were added by 5 mL DMEM with 10% fetal bovine serum to inactivate the trypsin-EDTA, followed by centrifugation at 1000g for 10 minutes, and plated in 2 T175 culture flasks at 37°C in a CO2 incubator. By changing the medium every 2 to 3 days, astrocytes 12 to 14 days in culture were split in an appropriate cell concentration, 24 to 48 hours before use of further experiments. Astrocytes (107 cells) were treated with 1 or 10 μM LPA with or without 5 μM Ki-16425 in Nunclon Delta surface (#150350; Thermo Fisher Scientific) at 37°C for 3 hours in a CO2 incubator, and cells were harvested by scraper gently and suspended in PBS. After twice washing with PBS, cells were counted using a TC-20 automated cell counter (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA). The cells were resuspended in PBS to make a final concentration of astrocytes 104 cells/5 μL in PBS and used for i.t. injection to assess the nociceptive activity.
2.8. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction
Total RNA was prepared from LPA-treated astrocytes by use of TRizol Reagent (Thermo Fisher Scientific). After purification, the amount of RNA was measured spectrophotometrically using OD260, and the quality of RNA was checked by spectrophotometric analysis using OD260/280. Total RNA (500 ng) was converted into first-strand cDNA by PrimeScript RT Reagent Kit (Takara Bio Inc, Otsu, Japan). The cycling parameters were 10 minutes at 95°C followed by 45 cycles of 15 seconds at 95°C and 1 minute at 60°C. Primer sets used for real-time PCR are shown in Table 1. The obtained data were normalized to the expression of GAPDH and analyzed by the Comparative CT Method.
Anesthetized mice were transcardially perfused with cold potassium-free PBS (K+-free PBS, pH7.4), followed by cold 4% paraformaldehyde solution. The fixed spinal cord was immersed overnight in 25% sucrose solution. The tissues were fast-frozen in cryoembedding compound on a mixture of ethanol and dry ice and stored at −80°C until use. The spinal cord was cut at 30 μm with a cryostat. For immunolabeling, spinal cord sections were washed 3 times with 0.1% Triton X-100 in K+-free PBS (PBST), followed by permeabilization with 50% and 100% methanol for 10 minutes each at room temperature (RT). The sections were then washed 3 times with PBST and preincubated in blocking buffer (2% bovine serum albumin [BSA] with 0.1% Triton X-100 in K+-free PBS) for 1 hour at RT. Next, the sections were then incubated with rabbit anti-CXCL1 polyclonal antibody (1:200; Boster Biological Technology Co, Ltd, Pleasanton, CA) and mouse anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein (anti-GFAP) monoclonal antibody (clone GA5, 1:500; Millipore Corporation, Burlington, MA) overnight at 4°C, washed with PBST, and incubated with Alexa 488-conjugated donkey anti-rabbit IgG antibody (1:300; Thermo Fisher) and anti-mouse IgG antibody (1:300; Thermo Fisher) for 2 hours at RT. The specificity of anti-CXCL1 and anti-GFAP antibodies has been previously reported.20,45 The immunolabeled sections were mounted with Fluoromount (Diagnostic BioSystems, Pleasanton, CA) on silane-coated glass slides and analyzed using a fluorescence microscope (Biorevo; Keyence, Tokyo, Japan). For the quantification of CXCL1 intensity, the imaging cytometry was performed using an image analyzer, IN Cell Analyzer 2000, and Developer toolbox software (GE Healthcare, Little Chalfont, Buckinghamshire, United Kingdom).28
2.10. Statistical analysis
All data are expressed as the mean ± SE. Data were analyzed with Graphpad Prism 7.0 software (Graphpad Software, San diago, CA) using the unpaired t test, 1-way ANOVA with the Tukey multiple comparisons test or the Dunnett multiple comparisons test, and 2-way ANOVA with the Tukey multiple comparisons test or the Bonferroni multiple comparisons test. Differences with a P value of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant.
3.1. Extinction of established NeuP by repeated LPA1/3 antagonist treatments
As shown in Figure 1A, the single injection of Ki-16425 at a dose of 30 mg/kg s.c. did not affect the pain threshold in the thermal nociception test at day 7 after the pSNL. However, the repeated treatments with this compound twice daily for 8 days staring from day 7 showed a gradual recovery of the basal pain threshold to the normal pain threshold, as shown in Figure 1B. It should be noted that the recovery of pain threshold remains evident at day 18, even after the cessation of treatments, suggesting that the pain memory may disappear by repeated blockade of LPA1/3 signaling. The Ki-16425–reversible abnormal pain in the mechanical nociception test was also observed at day 19 (Fig. 1C).
3.2. Selective astrocyte depletion reverses hyperalgesia, but not lysophosphatidic acid production
The dissociated spinal cord cells, which had been stained with anti-mouse CD11b-PE-Cyanine7 and ACSA-2-APC, were applied to flow cytometer. As shown in Figure 2A, the cell population of microglia (high CD11b-PE-Cyanine7 and low ACSA-2-APC) of aCSF-treated control mice was found in the Q1 compartment, whereas that of astrocytes (low CD11b-PE-Cyanine7 and high ACSA-2-APC) was found in Q3 compartment. When control mice were treated with 30 nmol (i.t.) of L-AA, an astrocyte toxin twice at days 1 and 2, the cell population of astrocytes harvested at day 4 was significantly decreased, whereas there was no significant change in the population of microglia (Figs. 2B–D). L-AA treatments also significantly reversed the thermal hyperalgesia, as well as Mac-1-saporin, a known microglial toxin (Fig. 2E). In the mechanical nociception test, mice at day 14 after the pSNL showed a significant hyperalgesia, which was reversed by the treatment with L-AA at 30 nmol (i.t.) (Fig. 2F). On the other hand, pSNL-induced increase in 18:1-LPA levels in the spinal dorsal horn at day 14 was reversed by Mac1-saporin treatments, but not by L-AA treatments (Fig. 2G).
3.3. Blockade of upregulated chemokine expression in astrocytes by LPA1/3 antagonist
Previous reports have demonstrated that astrocytes are activated and chemokine levels are upregulated at the late stage after nerve injury.5,45 In this study, we confirmed the upregulation of a representative chemokine, CXCL1-like immunoreactivity in the activated astrocytes showing intense GFAP-like immunoreactivity in the dorsal horn of spinal cord at day 14 after the pSNL (Figs. 3A, E, I, C, G, and K). The upregulation of CXCL1 was abolished by treatments with Ki-16425 at 30 mg/kg (s.c.) twice daily from day 7 to day 13 and once 4 hours before the spinal cord isolation (Figs. 3B, F, J, D, H, and L). When the intensity of CXCL1 signals in whole astrocytes was evaluated by Imaging cytometry using In Cell Analyser software, Developer Toolbox v.1.92 software (GE Healthcare), as reported elsewhere,28 the injury-induced significant increase in CXCL1 signals and its blockade by Ki-16425 were confirmed (Fig. 4).
3.4. Lysophosphatidic acid–induced upregulation of chemokine genes in cultured astrocytes
To see LPA actions on chemokine gene expression in cultured astrocytes, the culture medium was first replaced with DMEM (0.1% BSA) containing vehicle or Ki-16425 (5 μM) for 1 hour before LPA addition. Six hours after the addition of 10 μM LPA, they were washed twice by PBS without calcium and magnesium, and resuspended in PBS. An aliquot of astrocyte suspension was used for the study of chemokine gene expression. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that cultured astrocytes express LPA6 > LPA1 > LPA4 > LPA2 in the order of expression, but do not express LPA3 and LPA5. The incubation with 10 μM LPA (with 0.1% BSA) for 6 hours did not affect the expression of LPA receptors (Fig. 4A). The study of chemokine gene expression revealed that LPA addition upregulated the transcription of CXCL1, CCL7, CCL2, and CCL5, as elsewhere reported in the case with nerve injury5 (Figs. 4B–E). Lysophosphatidic acid–induced upregulation of gene expression of CXCL1 and CCL7, but not CCL2 or CCL5 was significantly reversed by co-incubation with Ki-16425 (Fig. 5).
3.5. Hyperalgesia by intrathecal injection of lysophosphatidic acid–primed mouse astrocytes
To see in vivo effects of LPA-primed astrocytes, the medium of astrocyte culture was replaced with DMEM (0.1% BSA) with or without Ki-16425 (5 μM) for 1 hour before the addition of LPA. Six hours after the addition of 10 μM LPA, they were washed twice by PBS without calcium and magnesium and used for the i.t. injection of astrocytes (106 cells/mouse). As seen in Figure 6A, a single injection of 1 nmol of LPA (i.t.) showed potent hyperalgesic effects at day 1 through day 10 after the injection. The LPA-primed astrocytes also showed significant hyperalgesic effects for 7 days with peak effects at day 1 and 2, whereas astrocytes without LPA treatment did not. When the LPA treatment was performed in the presence of 5 μM Ki-16425, the LPA priming–induced hyperalgesia at day 1 was significantly inhibited (Fig. 6B).
Accumulating evidence demonstrates that LPA plays key roles in the development of pSNL-induced NeuP.34 Underlying experimental findings in terms of peripheral nerves are as follows; LPA1-mediated demyelination causes functional cross-talk between noxious (C or Aδ) fibers and innocuous (Aβ) fibers,40 which explains a mechanism for allodynia, and the upregulation of pain-related molecules, including Cavα2δ1,9 which is a pharmacological target for pregabalin, a representative medicine for NeuP.3 Experimental findings in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, on the other hand, are as follows: LPA1- and LPA3-mediated amplification of LPA production,18 involvement of microglia-derived IL-1β in the LPA production,41 LPA3-mediated activation of cultured microglia causes ATP release, P2X4 activation, and production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor,4 which is reported to switch the hyperpolarizing GABAA function to depolarizing one through a downregulation of potassium-chloride transporter member 5 (KCC2).25 All these LPA-mediated mechanisms may form a feed-forward system underlying the development of NeuP.
One important question to be answered is whether LPA receptor signaling also may be involved in the maintenance of NeuP. As a first attempt, we tested the effects of LPA1/3 antagonist, Ki-16425 on NeuP at day 7 after the pSNL, although this inhibitor failed to show any acute antihyperalgesic effects. Repeated treatments with Ki-16425 for 8 days starting at day 7 increased the pain threshold to nearly normal levels over this time course. Of most interest is the finding that largely completes recovery of normal pain threshold lasted at least for 4 or 5 more days after the cessation of Ki-16425 treatments. All these findings indicate that the blockade of LPA1/3 signaling may erase the neural feed-forward plasticity underlying so-called pain memory. Detailed molecular mechanisms are still in progress, but we obtained the findings that microglia, but not astrocytes are involved in the LPA production at the late stage as well as the initial/early stage, whereas LPA-activated astrocytes inhibit the maintenance of NeuP, possibly through chemokines.5 In this study, we found that LPA production measured by LC-MS/MS and hyperalgesia in the thermal nociception test were blocked by the late treatments of Mac1-saporin. This is in contrast with previous findings, which demonstrated that the treatments with minocycline, a microglial inhibitor for 4 consecutive days starting at 1 day after the pSNL did not affect the NeuP, as reported,24 whereas the treatments of minocycline before the pSNL blocked NeuP.16 One of the mechanisms for this discrepancy could be the different time points at which microglia inhibitor was used (days 2-5 vs days 8, 10, and 12). Alternatively, the difference in findings may be related to the unique potency of Mac-1-saporin, which is reported to deplete microglia.12,27 If it is true that the inhibition of microglia activities by Mac-1-saporin is more potent than the inhibition by minocycline, unidentified but more intense microglial activation, possibly due to neurons–astrocytes–microglia tripartite interactions may occur at the later stage after the pSNL.
As the activation of astrocytes after peripheral nerve injury occurs later than the microglial activation, it is possible that astrocytes play a role in the maintenance rather than the development of NeuP.6,10,11 This speculation is supported by studies showing that several chemokines are expressed in the late stage of astrocytes after nerve injury, and that NeuP was blocked by neutralizing antibodies against chemokines.5 In this study, we confirmed the roles of astrocytes by pretreatment with astrocyte toxin L-AA, which selectively reduced the population of astrocytes without a change in the microglia population in the analysis using flow cytometry. The astrocyte toxin pretreatment significantly inhibited the NeuP, whereas it had no effect on LPA production. We confirmed astrocyte activation in the late stage at day 14 after the pSNL in terms of GFAP expression in Western blot and morphology in the immunohistochemistry. In addition, the expression of CXCL1, a representative chemokine is also upregulated in the activated astrocytes. As Ki-16425 significantly abolished the increased expression of both GFAP and CXCL1 in the imaging cytometry, it is evident that LPA1/3 is involved in astrocyte activation and chemokine expression in the late stage after the pSNL. To examine whether LPA receptor signaling has direct effects on chemokine expression, we tested the effects of LPA on chemokine expressions in primary cultured astrocytes prepared from the brain. The real-time PCR analysis confirmed the LPA-induced upregulated transcription of several chemokine genes. Among these chemokine genes, the LPA-induced upregulation of CXCL1 and CCL7 gene expressions was significantly abolished by Ki-16425, which has selective antagonistic activities to LPA1 and LPA3. Furthermore, the LPA-primed astrocytes caused Ki-16425–reversible hyperalgesia. As astrocytes have no expression of LPA3, the LPA-induced chemokine gene expression and LPA-activated hyperalgesia are presumably mediated by LPA1. Thus, it is presumed that LPA1-mediated astrocyte activation may play roles in the neurons–astrocytes–microglia tripartite interaction responsible for pain memory. Although microglia was found to play roles in LPA production even at the late stage, the mechanisms underlying microglia activation at the late stage remain elusive. Not only spinal, but peripheral mechanisms including upregulated or downregulated transcription of key molecules regulating the pain transmission26,33,37 may continuously activate microglia and following the maintenance of LPA production.
In conclusion, here we found that repeated treatments with LPA1/3 antagonist significantly reduced the established NeuP at least for several days even after the treatments. Although microglia-depleting toxin, but not astrocyte-depleting toxin inhibited the LPA production at the late stage, LPA-activated astrocytes at the late stage were found to play roles in the maintenance of NeuP.
Conflict of interest statement
The authors have no conflict of interest to declare.
This work was supported in part by Grants-in-Aid for the Platform for Drug Discovery, Informatics, and Structural Life Science [16am0101012j0005] (H.U.) from the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED), Japan; and JSPS KAKENHI Grant Numbers JP17H01586 (H.U.) and JP26253077 (H.U.).
The authors are grateful to Takehiro Mukae and Shuhei Yamagishi for the technical help of evaluation in the pain and real-time PCR, respectively.
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Keywords:© 2018 International Association for the Study of Pain
Neuropathic pain; L-α-aminoadipate; Mac-1-saporin; Chemokine; Astrocytes; Microglia