Although pain reduction after alcohol administration has repeatedly been demonstrated, alcohol effects on advanced and clinically relevant dynamic pain paradigms are still unknown. As such, temporal summation of pain (TSP) and conditioned pain modulation (CPM) indicate mechanisms of endogenous pain modulation and involve certain neurotransmitter systems crucially influenced by alcohol. Our study is the first to investigate acute alcohol effects on TSP and CPM. We investigated 39 healthy subjects in a placebo-controlled within-subject design and targeted alcohol levels of 0.06% (dose 1) and 0.08% (dose 2). Pain threshold, TSP, and CPM were evaluated before and after an alcoholic or placebo drink. Temporal summation of pain was assessed as enhanced pain response to 5 repetitive contact heat stimuli (threshold +3°C). Conditioned pain modulation was tested as pain inhibition when a conditioning stimulus (46°C hot water) was applied concurrently to a test stimulus (contact heat; threshold + 3°C). Both alcohol doses boosted CPM, with a greater effect size for the higher dose. Conditioning stimulus ratings increased after alcohol intake but were not correlated with CPM, suggesting independence of these effects. Temporal summation of pain was not affected by alcohol, and alcohol effects on pain threshold were small and limited to the higher dose. Our findings suggest that analgesic alcohol effects might be mainly driven by an enhancement of endogenous pain inhibition. The frequent use of alcohol as self-medication in chronic pain might be motivated by alcohol temporarily restoring deficient CPM, thus leading to pain relief in the short run and alcohol-related problems in the long run.
We found acute alcohol effects on conditioned pain modulation but not on temporal summation of pain, suggesting that alcohol boosts endogenous pain inhibition.
aPhysiological Psychology, Otto-Friedrich University of Bamberg, Bamberg, Germany
bPathopsychology, Otto-Friedrich University of Bamberg, Bamberg, Germany
Corresponding author. Address: Physiological Psychology, Otto-Friedrich-University of Bamberg, Markusplatz 3, D-96045 Bamberg, Germany. Tel.: +49 (0)951-863 1798. E-mail address: email@example.com (C. Horn-Hofmann).
Sponsorships or competing interests that may be relevant to content are disclosed at the end of this article.
C. Horn-Hofmann and E.S. Capito contributed equally to this article.
Received December 20, 2018
Received in revised form March 27, 2019
Accepted April 19, 2019
Online date: April 23, 2019