The classification of most chronic pain disorders gives emphasis to anatomical location of the pain to distinguish one disorder from the other (eg, back pain vs temporomandibular disorder [TMD]) or to define subtypes (eg, TMD myalgia vs arthralgia). However, anatomical criteria overlook etiology, potentially hampering treatment decisions. This study identified clusters of individuals using a comprehensive array of biopsychosocial measures. Data were collected from a case–control study of 1031 chronic TMD cases and 3247 TMD-free controls. Three subgroups were identified using supervised cluster analysis (referred to as the adaptive, pain-sensitive, and global symptoms clusters). Compared with the adaptive cluster, participants in the pain-sensitive cluster showed heightened sensitivity to experimental pain, and participants in the global symptoms cluster showed both greater pain sensitivity and greater psychological distress. Cluster membership was strongly associated with chronic TMD: 91.5% of TMD cases belonged to the pain-sensitive and global symptoms clusters, whereas 41.2% of controls belonged to the adaptive cluster. Temporomandibular disorder cases in the pain-sensitive and global symptoms clusters also showed greater pain intensity, jaw functional limitation, and more comorbid pain conditions. Similar results were obtained when the same methodology was applied to a smaller case–control study consisting of 199 chronic TMD cases and 201 TMD-free controls. During a median 3-year follow-up period of TMD-free individuals, participants in the global symptoms cluster had greater risk of developing first-onset TMD (hazard ratio = 2.8) compared with participants in the other 2 clusters. Cross-cohort predictive modeling was used to demonstrate the reliability of the clusters.
Supplemental Digital Content is Available in the Text.Cluster analysis identifies clusters of individuals relevant to chronic pain conditions using data collected in the Orofacial Pain: Prospective Evaluation and Risk Assessment (OPPERA) study.
aCenter for Pain Research and Innovation, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
Departments of bBiostatistics and
cEndodontics, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
dDepartment of Biostatistics, Harvard University, Boston, MA, USA
Departments of eDental Ecology and
fEpidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
gDepartment of Oral Diagnostic Sciences, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA
hPain Research and Intervention Center of Excellence, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA
iDepartment of Neural and Pain Sciences and Brotman Facial Pain Clinic, University of Maryland School of Dentistry, Baltimore, MD, USA
jThe Alan Edwards Centre for Research on Pain, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada
Corresponding author. Address: School of Dentistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7450, USA. Tel.: 919 537 3276; fax: 919 966 5339. E-mail address: email@example.com (E. Bair).
Sponsorships or competing interests that may be relevant to content are disclosed at the end of this article.
Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's Web site (www.painjournalonline.com).
Received September 07, 2015
Received in revised form January 24, 2016
Accepted February 03, 2016