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Development and validation of a new self-report measure of pain behaviors

Cook, Karon F.a,*; Keefe, Francisb; Jensen, Mark P.c; Roddey, Toni S.d; Callahan, Leigh F.e; Revicki, Dennisf; Bamer, Alyssa M.c; Kim, Jiseonc; Chung, Hyewong; Salem, Ranac; Amtmann, Dagmarc

doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2013.08.024

Summary A new measure, the Pain Behaviors Self Report (PaB-SR), provides a valid tool with which to explore relationships between pain behaviors and pain correlates.

Pain behaviors that are maintained beyond the acute stage after injury can contribute to subsequent psychosocial and physical disability. Critical to the study of pain behaviors is the availability of psychometrically sound pain behavior measures. In this study we developed a self-report measure of pain behaviors, the Pain Behaviors Self Report (PaB-SR). PaB-SR scores were developed using item response theory and evaluated using a rigorous, multiple-witness approach to validity testing. Participants included 661 survey participants with chronic pain and with multiple sclerosis, back pain, or arthritis; 618 survey participants who were significant others of a chronic pain participant; and 86 participants in a videotaped pain behavior observation protocol. Scores on the PaB-SR were found to be measurement invariant with respect to clinical condition. PaB-SR scores, observer reports, and the videotaped protocol yielded distinct, but convergent views of pain behavior, supporting the validity of the new measure. The PaB-SR is expected to be of substantial utility to researchers wishing to explore the relationship between pain behaviors and constructs such as pain intensity, pain interference, and disability.

aDepartment of Medical Social Sciences, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA

bDepartment of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA

cDepartment of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA

dSchool of Physical Therapy, Texas Woman’s University Houston Center, Houston, TX, USA

eThurston Arthritis Research Center, Department of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA

fCenter for Health Outcomes Research, United BioSource Corporation, Bethesda, MD, USA

gDepartment of Education, College of Education, Chungnam National University, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, South Korea

*Corresponding author. Address: Department of Medical Social Sciences, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 625 N Michigan Ave, Suite 2700, Chicago, IL 60611, USA. Tel.: +1 (713) 291 3918; fax: +1 (312) 503 4800.


Submitted October 24, 2012; revised August 21, 2013; accepted August 22, 2013.

© 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain
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