Research papersEmotional valence contributes to music-induced analgesiaRoy, Mathieua,c; Peretz, Isabellea,c,d,e; Rainville, Pierreb,c,d,e,*Author Information aDepartment of Psychology, University of Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-ville, Montreal, Que, Canada H3C 3J7 bDepartment of Stomatology, Faculty of Dental Medicine, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-ville, Montreal, Que, Canada H3C 3J7 cCentre de recherche en neuropsychologie et cognition (CERNEC), Canada dGroupe de recherche sur le système nerveux central (GRSNC), Canada eCentre de recherche de l’Institut de gériatrie de Montréal, Canada *Corresponding author. Address: Department of Stomatology, Faculty of Dental Medicine, C.P. 6128, Succ. Centre-ville, Montreal, Que, Canada H3C 3J7. Tel.: +1 514 343 6111x3935; fax: +1 514 343 2111. E-mail: [email protected] Submitted June 22, 2006; received in revised form March 2, 2007; accepted April 9, 2007. Pain: January 2008 - Volume 134 - Issue 1 - p 140-147 doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2007.04.003 Buy Metrics Abstract The capacity of music to soothe pain has been used in many traditional forms of medicine. Yet, the mechanisms underlying these effects have not been demonstrated. Here, we examine the possibility that the modulatory effect of music on pain is mediated by the valence (pleasant–unpleasant dimension) of the emotions induced. We report the effects of listening to pleasant and unpleasant music on thermal pain in healthy human volunteers. Eighteen participants evaluated the warmth or pain induced by 40.0, 45.5, 47.0 and 48.5 °C thermal stimulations applied to the skin of their forearm while listening to pleasant and unpleasant musical excerpts matched for their high level of arousal (relaxing–stimulating dimension). Compared to a silent control condition, only the pleasant excerpts produced highly significant reductions in both pain intensity and unpleasantness, demonstrating the effect of positive emotions induced by music on pain (Pairwise contrasts with silence: p’s < 0.001). Correlation analyses in the pleasant music condition further indicated that pain decreased significantly (p’s < 0.05) with increases in self-reports of music pleasantness. In contrast, the unpleasant excerpts did not modulate pain significantly, and warmth perception was not affected by the presence of pleasant or unpleasant music. Those results support the hypothesis that positive emotional valence contributes to music-induced analgesia. These findings call for the integration of music to current methods of pain control. © 2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.