Extent of sympathetic blockade after stellate ganglion block with bupivacaineHardy, P. A.J.*; Wells, J. C.D.Pain: February 1989 - Volume 36 - Issue 2 - p 193–196 doi: 10.1016/0304-3959(89)90023-7 Research report: PDF Only Buy Abstract Author InformationAuthors Article MetricsMetrics A study of the extent of sympathetic blockade after stellate ganglion block was assessed using liquid crystal thermography. Two volumes (10 and 20 ml) of bupivacaine 0.5% plain were used. Irrespective of the volume used cranial sympathetic block always occurred and thoracic sympathetic block never occurred. While upper cervical block was present in all patients, lower cervical sympathetic block was present only in the 20-ml group (P < 0.05). The larger volume was associated with a significant incidence of hoarseness due to spread of local anaesthetic onto adjacent laryngeal nerves. Centre for Pain Relief, Walton Hospital, Rice Lane, Liverpool L9 1AE U.K. *Correspondence to: Dr. P.A.J. Hardy, Whiston Hospital, Dragon Lane, Prescot, Merseyside L35 5DR, U.K. Submitted November 30, 1987; revised August 8, 1988; accepted August 9, 1988. © Lippincott-Raven Publishers.